Geography 1010, Indus River Valley/Religion in the Region
Geography 1010, Indus River Valley/Religion in the Region GEOG 1010-002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justice Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1010-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Carmen Brysch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Indus River Civilization (5K years ago) Hearth - the beginning of a civilization, usually a river that can fuel agriculture The Indus River civilization's hearth laid on the Indus River. There were no obvious signs of leadership class, despite the large civilization. Indus River Valley script has still not been deciphered. Urban morphology- study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation The course of the Indus river shifted, causing the pulse of life to shift to the Ganges River Culture: Language The northern half of India has Indo-European language influences while the southern half has Dravidian language influences. o Examples of Indo-European Language: Hindi o Examples of Dravidian Language: Tamil While India has 29 states with 22 official languages, English is the 2nd most spoken language of India. Caste System- divides people into an inherited social hierarchy Jatis- horizontal divisions within each caste Four principles of caste systems include separation, division, hierarchy and reciprocity o The caste system is shaped like a pyramid, each step has it's own divisions (jatis) The Hierarchy of the Caste System: Brahmins (Priests and Scholars) Kshatriyas (Political and Military Leaders) Vaishyas (Shopkeepers, Farmers) Shudras (Servants, Artisans, Manual Laborers) Dalits (Leather Workers, Drain Cleaners, Street Sweepers) Religion in the Region Universalizing Religion- A belief system that is worldwide in scope, welcoming all people as potential adherents (who also may actively work to acquire converts) Ethnic Religion- A belief system largely confined to the members of a single ethnic or cultural group Polytheistic- having more than one god Hinduism A polytheistic religion with no single founder. Began four thousand years BCE and spread throughout the Ganges River Valley. They practice the beliefs of reincarnation (rebirth), karma (people's actions in present and previous lives having and effect on future existences) and moksha (being released from the cycle of rebirth) o Gods: Krishna, Vishnu, Shiva etc. o Sacred River: Ganges o Scriptures: Vedas (written in Sanskrit/India's oldest sacred writings!) o Ethnic Religion o Usually associated with the upper class ------ Nirvana- heaven/a transcendent state which there is no suffering, desire, nor sense of self Buddhism Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (THE BUDDHA). It's origins are from Hinduism, 500 years BCE and it's hearth is the Ganges River. When the Ashoka empire ruled the Indian subcontinent, they converted it to Buddhism. Due to relocation through trade (also through hierarchical diffusion), most of the Buddhist population lives in China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan. o Scriptures: Tiptaka Teaches to live the middle path (live in balance between worldly possessions and an ascetic life) o The Four Noble Truths- Truth of Suffering Truth of the Cause of Suffering Truth of the End of Suffering Truth of the Path that leads to the end of Suffering -Basically: "life causes suffering" and the goal of Buddhism is to reach Nirvana by living the "8 fold path" o What is the 8 Fold Path? Living in understanding of the four noble truths (also called the Middle Way) o Usually involves pilgrimages to stupas o Universalizing Religion o Three Branches of Buddhism: Vajrayana (Tibet and Mongolia) Theravada (Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia) Mahayana (China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam) ------ Islam Beginning in 700 CE, Islam has diffused in two major paths: through sea trade and the Khyber pass (located between Afghanistan and Pakistan). Relations between Islam and Hinduism have varied over the centuries, and Islam has shaped geopolitical lines since its beginning. It has also played a major role in the shaping of East and West Pakistan ------ Khalsa- the body or company of fully initiated Sikhs, to which the devout orthodox are ritually admitted at puberty Can also be translated as "pure" 5 Ks- Five physical symbols worn by Sikhs who have been initiated into the Khalsa Sikhism Created during the 16th century CE in Punjab, India, Sikhism draws from Hinduism and Islam. The "First Master," Guru Nanak Dev is known as the inspired teacher while Sikhs are the disciples. o Teachings: Guru Granth Sahib All people are equal Denounces caste system Vegetarianism o Universalizing Religion o Known Worldwide 5k's of Sikhism: 1 Kesh- Uncut hair (must be worn in a turban by men) 2 Kara- Wearing a steel Bracelet 3 Kanga-Wooden Comb 4 Kaccha- Cotton Underwear 5 Kirpan- Steel Sword The 5 Ks works to create identity among Sikhs. ----- Jainism The presence of Jainism has dated back to 10th century CE. It originated within the Persian empire (was formerly known as the "Zoroaster" religion) as a reform movement of Hinduism. Eventually, it's followers migrated to escape persecution and most of the population (over 70k) now reside in India. They have become some of the wealthiest families in India and control much of the Indian economy. o Beliefs: Nonviolence Strict Veganism All animals and plants have living souls o Ethnic Religion o 4 million members
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