August 25th- Sept 3rd notes
August 25th- Sept 3rd notes 108-2F
Popular in Human Population Earth Environment
Popular in Environmental Science
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by josiepelham on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 108-2F at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Julie G Price (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Human Population Earth Environment in Environmental Science at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
August 25th Sept 339quotI 0 Earth systems finite and limited Can be changed and damaged 0 Environment living things 0 Water conditionally renewable it can become unusable o Ecosystem Service normal function of natural services amp allow us to live pollination o Ecological Systems purify air and water cycle nutrients regulate climate 0 Degradation overuse of natural resources 0 Natural resources Substances and energy sources we need to survive 0 Renewable natural resources replenished over short periods of time o Nonrenewable unavailable after depletion 0 Environmental Science Study of environment 0 Independent variable can be manipulated o Dependent Variable it depends on the independent variable 0 Control unmanipulated point of comparison 0 Paradigm dominant view 0 Paradigm Shift dominant view is replaced 0 Environmentalism social movement to save the planet 0 Three Ethical Perspectives o Anthropocentrism only humans have rights no benefit to people no value 0 Biocentrism certain living things have value 0 Eco centrism whole ecological system has value I Preservation Ethic nature deserves protection for its own value revered like a church I Conservation Ethic protect forest but still take advantage of it greatest good for the most people I Land Ethic protect all parts of eco system I Sustainability living within our planet s means 0 Meeting our needs wo compromising the ability of our future generations to meet their own needs 0 Natual Capital accumulated wealth of Earth s resources 0 System network of relationships among components 0 Feedback loops is the opposite of what you think o H stabilizes the system Sweating o sends system further toward the extreme o Eutrophication nutrient over enrichment algae on a pond Element Chemical substance with a given set of properties 0 Nutrient elements that we need 0 Compound molecule composed of 2 or more elements 0 Acidic less than 7 basic greater than 7 Light energy powers most living systems I am a heterotroph 0 Significant energy loss occurs as you go up the food chain 0 Primary production solar to chemical energy I Gross total amount of chemical energy I Net energy remaining after respiration available to heterotrophs Natural selection the main observable driving force of evolution 0 Enhanced survival and reproduction genes are passed on 0 Central case study Hawaii s native birds Species population groups of populations whose members share characteristics and can breed with each other to produce fertile offspring 0 Molecular species change definition Slimy Salamander Population group of individuals of a species that live in the same area at the same time Evolution change over time 0 Biological Evolution I Genetic change in a population over time Genetic changes lead to modifications in appearance of behavior Evolutionary processes influence agriculture pesticide resistance medication health and diseases Adaptations characteristics that promote reproductive success Mutations accidental DNA change I Nonlethal mutations provide genetic variation on which natural selection acts I Sexual reproduction creates new DNA producing new combination of genes I Changes take place over long periods of time o Divergent Evolution overtime change that derived from one ancestor 0 Artificial selection Selection conduction under human direction Biodiversity 0 Genes species populations communities 0 There are over 18 million species on earth 0 Speciation generating new species I Allopatric speciation 0 Main mode of speciation 0 Species form bc of physical separation of population 0 Population can be separated by glaciers rivers mountains 0 Each population with its own set of mutations diverges Phylogenetic tree tree that shows relationship among species groups genes etc Taxonomists o Classify organisms according to genetic makeup and physical appearance 0 Hierarchy system Dumb King Phillip Came Over From Germany Stoned I Domain I Kingdom I Phylum I Class I Order I Family I Genus I Species Endemic Species o Exists only in certain areas 0 Very susceptible to extinction 0 Population is small Causes of extinction 0 Climate change new species specialized species destroying habitats pollution overhunt Ecology study of the interaction among organisms Organismal individuals and environment Population population changes Community species diversity and interactions Ecosystem living and nonliving 0000 Landscape how and why ecosystems communities and populations are distributed Habitat environment where organisms live environment includes living and nonliving things 0 Habitat use nonrandom patterns 0 Niche functional role in a community I Specialist has specific niche I Generalist broad niche 0 Habitat selection process by which organisms actively select habitats I Criteria food shelter breeding sites and mates 0 Population size number of individuals present at any given time 0 Population density number of individuals in a population per unit area I Higher density easier to find mates increase competition and vulnerability to predation increase risk of disease I Lower density harder to find mates organisms have plenty of space to live Sex Ratio OOOOOOO Male to female Age structure predict population growth Natality birth rates within a population Mortality death rates within a population Immigration moving in from outside population Emigration leaving population Rate of natural increase birth rate death rate Population growth rate birth rate immigration rate death rate emigration rate Exponential Growth fixed percent population growth x 100 Limiting factors physical chemical and biological attributes of the environment Carrying capacity maximum population size that an environment can contain
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