Chapter 8: Minerals and Water Notes
Chapter 8: Minerals and Water Notes NUTR 1000 002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Dinnsen on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 1000 002 at East Carolina University taught by Nancy Harris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition Concerns in Nutrition and Food Sciences at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Need to Know for Chapter 8: Minerals and Water **** EVERYTHING IN BLUE IS GOING TO BE ON THE NEXT EXAM*** 1. What is the most abundant mineral in the body? - Calcium 2. Functions of Calcium: - Integral part of bone structure - Builds and maintains bones and teeth - About 1 % found in blood and body fluids - Important in nerve transmissions - Helps maintain normal blood pressure - Plays an essential role in the clotting of blood - Involved in muscle contraction and relaxation - Allows secretion of hormones, digestive enzymes, and neurotransmitters - Activates cellular enzymes that regulate many processes 3. Deficiency associated with calcium: a. Osteoporosis –adult bone loss -Fragile bones due to bone loss -Fractures can occur in older people b. Calcium toxicity symptoms: -Constipation -Interference with absorption of other nutrients -Increased risk of developing kidney stones 4. What are the sources of dietary sodium and which source contributes the most to dietary intake? - Food processing, naturally occurring, at the table, and during cooking. - The source that contributes the most is food processing. 5. DRI for Sodium - 1500 mg for active healthy people ages 9-50 - 1300 mg for ages 51-70 - 1200 mg for the elderly - TOLERABLE UPPER LIMIT: 2300 mg for adults - ESTIMATED SAFE AND ADEQUATE DAILY INTAKE: 180 mg for adults 6. Functions of water including percentage contribution to adult’s weight: - Water makes up 50-70% of an adult’s body weight. - Cleanses the tissues and blood of wastes - Serves as a solvent for minerals, vitamins, amino acids, glucose and other small molecules. - Transport vehicle for nutrients and wastes - Structural component of cells, tissues, and organs - Involved in metabolic and energy functions - Lubricant for joints and digestive tract - Shock absorber- acts as a cushion for joints and sensitive tissues - Temperature regulation- sweat is the body’s coolant 7. Factors that can affect one’s need for fluid: - Food consumed (fiber, protein, salt and sugar intake) - Environmental temperature and humidity - Physical activity - Alcohol consumption - Diseases such as diabetes - Pregnancy and lactation - Prolonged diarrhea, vomiting or fever - Surgery, blood loss or burns - Very young and very old - Some medications Additional Information: - Minerals: Chemical elements, essential, inorganic, homogeneous substances-retain their chemical identity, are not destroyed by heat, acid, air or mixing, bioavailability varies. - Mineral Functions: Fluid balance, electrolyte balance, acid base balance, catalysts for many biological reactions including: muscle response, nerve transmissions, hormone production - Major Minerals: Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Sulfur. - Trace Minerals: Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Fluoride, Chromium, Copper, Manganese, Molybdenum - Functions of Iron: a. Components of two proteins: Hemoglobin- oxygen transporting protein in red blood cells Myoglobin- carries and stores oxygen in the muscles b. Involved in Energy yielding reactions c. Contributes to drug detoxification - Iron absorption: only about 10-15% of dietary iron is absorbed, body stores affect the efficiency of iron absorption and excretion - Factors that reduce iron absorption: tannins in teas (especially black tea) and coffee, calcium and phosphorus in milk, phytates present in fiber in whole grains bind iron and prevent absorption, iron is better absorbed from foods than from dietary supplements.