SYG1000- Ch. 6 notes
SYG1000- Ch. 6 notes syg 1000
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Espinosa on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to syg 1000 at Florida State University taught by Gloria Lessan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see introduction to sociology in Social Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Chapter 6 Notes + At army academies, you lose your own self. You look like everyone else, you lose your hair and clothes and money and you are shaped into what they want you to be. ● Lipsky: Studied this intense discipline. The cadets were happy because onit cohesion and the care for their fellow cadets. They liked the group conformity. Basic Concepts Groups + Social group= importance in life (roommate/sociology class) ● Social Group: People w/ common identity/regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior. Company is NOT a social group. (Example: people waiting for a bus) ● Social Aggregate: No interaction, but together in a particular place. ● Social Category: People sharing common characteristic such as gender/job (without necessarily interacting with each other) + Groups that shape our lives are those with emotional ties. Group life differs in how members experience it. ● Primary Groups: Small groups categorized by face to face interaction, intimacy, and strong commitment. (Often experience unity, merging self with personal “we”) ● Cooley: Coined ^ due to basic form of association (long lasting influence). Argued that primary groups are fulfilling whereas secondary groups are to achieve specific goal. ● Secondary Groups: L arge and impersonal and with less emotional ties or unity. Schools, businesses, work and clubs. We often play roles in these. + Secondary groups CAN become primary groups. Most hours are with secondary groups. Primary groups= Conformity Secondary Groups= Achieving goal Conformity + Need for acceptance among youth= conformity. This can lead to murder/drug abuse. Going Along With the Group ● Asch: Group pressure studies, the people agreed all together on one thing though it was completely wrong. People discount own perception due to peer pressure. Obedience to Authority: Milgram’s Research ● Milgram: Studied Nazi Germany. Linked to obedience (which is a kind of conformity) Unethical study methods that deceived the subjects into obedience. Answer: People will obey any kind of authority no matter how severe, despite horrible consequences. They always say “just following orders.” Organizations ● Organization: People band together to achieve something that can’t be done alone. This is a group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a common purpose. Usually a larger secondary group, but CAN be a small Primary group Universities, religious bodies and business corporations. ● Formal organization: Achieve objective through explicit rules and procedures. + Prime example= bureaucratic organization + Weber recognized that formal organizations are dominant form of organization now. + Organizations give birth (hospitals), help us grow (school), and put us away (funeral home) + Most people today die in hospitals and registered to the government. ● Organizations can dictate us. They put our things under government control, requiring us to fight in wars or pay taxes or obey laws or face punishment. It makes us powerless in a sense. Networks ● Networks: “Good connections.” All of the direct/indirect connections that link a person or a group with other groups/people. Personal networks include: people of similar race, background, ethnicity and class. + Magazine subscription= you are now part of that network of people who may be of various backgrounds. + Not all NETWORKS are SOCIAL GROUPS!! (but social groups are important for getting networks) ● Networks lack the shared expectations/identity of social groups. Theories of Groups, Organizations, and Networks In Groups and Out Groups + Scorning other groups can lead to a “sense of belonging” (i.e. Racist groups) ● In Groups: Groups toward which one feels loyalty/respect. The group’s “We” belong to. ● Out Groups: Groups toward which one feels antagonism. “Those people.” Reference Groups ● Cooley coined the “looking glass self” the idea that we judge ourselves by how we appear to others. ● Merton: IntroducedReference Group A group that provides a standard for judging one’s behaviors. (The family, peer groups, and coworkers) + You don’t have to belong to a group for it to be a reference group ● It is important for children to see good references to provide positive standards in life. We don’t usually interact socially with these groups, but we take pride in identifying with them. ● Reference groups can be both primary and secondary and even fictional. The Effects of Size ● Simmel: Studied effects of small groups on people’s behavior. Dyads ● Simplest group, consisting of two people. These are unstable and intense since full cooperation is needed to function. Often holds deep secrets. Since they are fragile, Simmel believes that legal supports for marriage are found in societies which hold marriage as a part of social stability. Triads ● Group of three people, often more stable since there is less pressure for the other two to get along. One person can temporarily leave without threatening it. During arguments, the third person can be the mediator and help them. Destabilization forms when alliances occur. + In an alliance, a member of the triad will choose the weaker of the two as a partner as a “revolutionary condition” to overthrow the stronger one. Larger Groups ● As groups get greater in size, their intensity decreases and their stability increases. Intensity decreases due to smaller groups able to exist for individuals within the group. Example: A dyad can only have one relationship, a triad can have three relationships, a group of 6 can have 15, etc. ● Big groups are more stable since they can survive withdrawal of some members. ● Larger groups are also more exclusive since members can limit social relationships to the group itself and avoid talking to nonmembers. Cliquishness then forms when social characteristics are similar in the group. Groups do not always restrict relationships with outsiders, however. More diversity= more interaction. Leadership roles also grow in larger groups. Organizations + Weber first interpreted modern organizations as stable ways to coordinate humans and goods across space and time. + Development depends on information and writing. Needs rules and hierarachy. Bureaucracy ● All large scale organizations in Weber’s eyes were bureaucratic. ● Gournay: Coined bureaucracy. This was the rule of officials made of rules and procedures. ● Balzac: Giant power wielded by pygmies, this view holds today. Beauracracy is viewed in good and bad lights, but it is believed to be efficient since all tasks are regulated by rules and procedures. Only in modern times have they fully grown. According to Weber, expansion is inevitable in modern society, but he also saw major failings that have important implications for social modern life. ● Ideal type: Idea doesn’t refer to desirable, but to a pure form of organization to pinpoint essential characteristics. These include: Clear cut hierarchy (pyramid structure) Written rules Officials work full time and are salaried (fixed salary to job) Separation of work and home life. No members own the material they operate ● More close to bureaucracy structure, more close to goals. Still very dull and uncreative. Fear of rationalization can lead to negative things, effectiveness must come first. Rationalization has grown since then. Formal and Informal Relations within Bureaucracies ● Formal Relations: R elations that exist in groups, laid down by rules of the authority. Weber had little to say about informal, but informal allows for flexibility. ● Informal Relations: P ersonal connections in organizations, ways of doing things apart from formal structure. ● Blau: Looked at income tax violations from informal relations. Consulting with one another rather than their supervisor helped relieve anxiety. They were able to develop informal procedures that allowed more responsibility than the formal rules. + Informal networks develop at all levels. At the top, personal connections are more important than formal situations. ● Meyer and Rowan: Formal rules and procedures are often distant from organization members. They are ritualistic in character. It’s a blend of informal and formal, they justify the way tasks are done. + Dull jobs have informal usually spice up things with creativity, The Control of TIme and Space ● Foucault: Architectures of organizations are involved with authority and social makeup. Physical proximity makes primary groups easier, distance results in “them” and “us.” Systems rely on informal relationships. Visibility or lack of it greatly influences/expresses powers of authority. ● Surveillance: Supervisions of activities in organizations. Level of visibility determines how people are subjected to this. Two forms include: + Direct supervision + Record keeping (used for promotion and monitoring behavior) Everyone is under surveillance, but the lower person is scrutinized most. ● Timetables : Regularize activities across time/space. Focault says they distribute bodies around and are a part of organizational discipline. The Strength of Weak Ties ● Granovetter: Strength in weak ties, particularly in high socioeconomic groups. People higher up can hear about new jobs and opportunities through their families. Among lower groups weak ties don’t connect to higher networks so they don’t help. Most people depend on personal networks. Women’s power in spheres is weak. Women have less connections, so they have less opportunity. + Women are more likely to be hired into job levels that already have more women in it. Contemporary Research on Groups And Networks The McDonaldization of Society? ● Ritzer: process by which fast food restaurants are coming to dominate the world. Argues that society is moving toward standardized/regulated model. Less personal social life. Efficiency, calculability, uniformity and control through automation= rationalization. Maximize efficiency and minimize human responsibility/involvement. Personal Taste ● Salganic, Watts, and Dodds: T ested influence of social networks on music taste. Popular songs were often chosen despite how different they all were. Butterfly effect small variations produce large variations in long term behavior. Personal tests are impacted by conformity in the end. Obesity + Food desert communities are short on healthy food. ● Christakis and Fowler: Fat friends make you fat. But a neighbor’s weight change had no change in body weight. There is a direct causal relationship, distance between friends didn’t matter. Friends share lifestyles and hobbies and diets. Body weight was becoming a social norm. Then again, a fat person can be influenced by a skinny friend to work out more. ● Lyons: Critical of their statistics and errors. The Internet as a Social Network ● Internet makes people communicate more via chat rooms and online forums. Has no emotional or social constraint due to lack of face to face. Leads to impersonal relationships, but also allows more intimate things to be said since facetoface adds pressure. Internet is broader since everyone seems equal behind a screen. Hate groups depend on internet for gathering. This allows them to keep their identities under wraps. ● The most pronounced differences affecting internet are age and education. U.S has highest internet usage in the world. But will this lead to weaker ties in the community since people like to chat with others across wider distances? Unanswered Questions Is Democracy meaningless is the Face of Increasingly Powerful Bureaucratic Organizations? + We don’t have access to our own lives like the Government has, so this can infringe on the idea of democracy. ● What disturbed Weber the most was that faceless bureucrats were ruling the most. ● Michels: Student of Weber who connected organization to an oligarchy. Loss of power in a society conquered by organizations ● Iron Law of Oligarchy: Coined by Michels, large organizations were centralizing power and making Democracy difficult. ● Oligarchy: Rule by the few within an organization/society. The flow of power to the top was inevitable. However, connections between oligarchy and bureaucratic centralization is ambiguous. + Large scale organizations require centralizing power. Unequal power doesn’t always depend on size (large size equals less control since smaller groups have direct supervision) People at the top can lose power depending on the lower down due to specialization. How are Late Modern Organizations Reinventing Themselves? ● Numerous organizations are trying to become less hierarchical. ● Burns and Stalker: Beauracracies can hinder creativity and innovation. Now fluctuating markets lead to horizontal models. Globalization leads to this. ● Information and Communication Tech: C omputers and internet influences organizational structures. Good for efficiency, bad for individuals. Rise of telecommunication leads to productivity, eliminating commuting time, so there is more energy on work. ● Hartig, Johansson and Kylin: T elecommuters make more time on paid work at home than in the office. This is beneficial except for: Loss of human face to face interraction Isolation rises Women are stressed at home with work and children. + Benefits include less strict management from employers, so the telecommuter can be more flexible. ● The possibility of telecommuting is significant when determining desirability of a job. Better for disables people Better for prioritizing the home ● Technical skills are now prioritized. Experts: Creative and flexible due to less constraints Computertization leads to service workers being more visible and vulnerable to supervision. (Count seconds they are on the line, so leads to more stress) ● Benefits of computerization: Interest to jobs Promote social networking + Mostly benefits professionals, doesn’t much help the average worker. Can the Traditional Organization Survive? + Central feature of beauracracies: Adherence to responsibilities and procedures for carrying them out. Weber’s was self contained that intersected with outside entities at limited points. Many organizations no longer operate as independent units, they work better as a web of complex relationships with outside groups and organizations. ● Castells: “Network enterprise” is the organizational form best suited to global economy. (It’s hard to survive without a network) Info Tech= growth Enterprise web: Central organization that links together smaller firms. ● Decentralization contributes to network functioning. Change is rapid, so Weberian style is too entrenched in their own ways to function. ● Davis: Argues that as networks grow, power and responsibility goes downward rather than being concentrated at the top. ● Network organizations have 2 advantages over bureaucracies: Foster information flow Enhance creativity + it’s easier to earn from one another since you can work a solution with someone.
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