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Principles of Biology Week 2 Notes

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by: Mary Larsen

Principles of Biology Week 2 Notes Biology 1106

Mary Larsen
Virginia Tech
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

This covers the beginning of the first test for second semester biology.
Principle of Biology
Dr. Glen Stevens
Class Notes
Biology, plants, Plant Biology, plant cells, types of plant cells, meristems, plant tissues, plant organization, plant physiology, plant secondary growth, plant primary growth
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"Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Mary!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol"

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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Larsen on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1106 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Glen Stevens in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Principle of Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Mary!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol



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Date Created: 03/02/16
Biology Notes 2 1/23/16  The organized plant body develops throughout the life cycle  Monocots vs Eudicots o Based on morphological and anatomical differences  Monocots o Flower parts are in threes or multiples of three o Leaves have smooth edges, often narrow, with parallel veins o Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem o Fibrous root system o Seed has one cotyledon  Eudicots (dicots) o Flower parts are in fours or fives or multiples of fours or fives o Leaves are palmate (hand-like) or oval with netlike veins o Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring around the stem o Taproot system o Seed has two cotyledons  Meristems o Clusters of cells that are similar to stem cells o Undifferentiated plant tissue o Cells divide indefinitely by mitosis o Give rise to new cells o New cells differentiate o After each mitosis, one cell differentiates and becomes part of the plant body while the other remains meristem to continue this cycle o Apical meristems  Roots and shoots  Growth in length  Primary growth  Primary tissues  Form the primary plant body  Primary meristems  First 3 meristems that form the 3 parts of the plant body  Protoderm  Procambium  Ground meristem  Intercalary meristem o Only in some plants such as corn o Allow lengthening of the internode (space between leaf attachments)  Surrounded by protective structures  Delicate regions o Lateral meristems  Secondary growth  Growth in diameter  Secondary tissues  Vascular cambium  Gives rise to secondary xylem and phloem  Cork cambium  Gives rise to cork cells  Form the outer bark of the plant  Living systems are organized into hierarchies o BIOL 1106 idea  Cell – tissue – organ – organ system – organism  Organism – population – community – ecosystem – biosphere  Organization of the plant body o Cells distinguished by  Size of vacuole  Alive at maturity or not  Primary vs secondary cell wall  Thickness of cell walls o Tissues  Dermal  Protection  Epidermis o Derived from embryo or apical meristem  One cell layer thick o Cuticle- covers epidermis in places o Guard cell  Regulate size stomata can open o Trichomes  Outgrowths of epidermal cells  Not present in all plants  Protects leaves from high light intensities  Protects from insects o Root hairs  Increase surface area for absorption of water and minerals  Ground  Storage of carbohydrates and water  Photosynthesis  Support  3 types of cells are characteristic o parenchyma  most common and abundant  thin primary cell walls  large vacuoles  living at maturity  large cells  lots of chloroplasts o collenchyma  living at maturity  irregularly thickened primary cell walls  provide flexible support for plant organs o sclerenchyma  thick cell walls  secondary cell walls impregnated with lignin  makes cell walls rigid  dead at maturity  Vascular  Xylem o Composed of conducting cells called vessels and tracheids  Both dead at maturity  Elongated in shape  Form hollow tubes  Vessels are larger and stack end to end  Vessels conduct water more efficiently than tracheids  Tracheids are smaller and have tapered openings that overlap  Both have lignified secondary cell walls  Contribute to support  Brings water to leaves  By adhesion and cohesion  Transports water and nutrients throughout the plant  Characteristic of all tracheophytes  Phloem o Food conducting vascular tissue o 2 types of elongated cells  alive at maturity  lack a nucleus  sieve tube members  more specialized and efficient  stack end to end  form a sieve tube for transport  sieve cells o companion cells are associated with each sieve tube member  carry out some of the metabolic functions o organs o organ systems  root system  anchorage and absorption  4 regions of the root o root cap  continuously replaced by apical meristems  secrete a slimy substance to lubricate the root cap as the root elongates through the soil o zone of cell division  location of apical meristem o zone of elongation  grows due to the differentiation of cells produced by the apical meristem  cell vacuoles enlarge o zone of maturation  epidermis  root hairs  cortex  mostly ground tissue, inside endodermis  endodermis o suberin  fatty substance that blocks water passage  located in casparian strip  stele  pericycle o gives rise to branch roots o location where the plant actively controls access of water and minerals  vascular tissue  3 vegetative organs in angiosperms  leaves  roots  stems  shoot system  stems o axis to support leaves and flowers o transport  modified stems o bulbs o rhizomes o runners o Stolons o Tendrils o tubers o cladophylls  vegetative shoot o made of repeating units of nodes where leaves are attached to the stem  internode o the spaces between nodes  node  leaves o adaptations for photosynthesis o flattened blade that increases surface area to increase absorption of solar energy o made of 3 types of tissue  upper and lower epidermis  palisade mesophyll  spongy mesophyll  loosely arranged  many air spaces that facilitate gas exchange  mesophyll is ground tissue, made of parenchyma  vascular tubes  axillary bud o lateral shoot tips  allow the plant to branch or replace the main shoot if it is damaged or eaten o can produce flowers or floral shoots  reproductive shoot  flower o secondary growth  vascular cambium  secondary xylem o as new rings form, the primary xylem is crushed in the center  secondary phloem o produced at a slower rate o outside of the vascular cambium  annual growth rings  active vessels are around the outside  “heartwood”  older secondary xylem o in some cases, filled with compounds that give striking heartwood coloration  Periderm  Replaces epidermis  Functions to protect the stem  Cork cambium o Outer cortex o Cork cells  Towards outside  Impregnated with suberin for waterproofing  Dead at maturity o Phelloderm  Towards inside  Bark  Secondary phloem + periderm  Lenticels o Patches of unsuberized cells o Gas exchange  annual growth rings  organization  plant life span o perennial plants  grow year after year o annual plants  live only one year o biennial plants  live for two years


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