New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Ms. Pink Wintheiser


Ms. Pink Wintheiser
GPA 3.77

S. Cohen

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

S. Cohen
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in PHIL-Philosophy

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Pink Wintheiser on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 453 at University of Washington taught by S. Cohen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/192528/phil-453-university-of-washington in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Washington.

Similar to PHIL 453 at UW

Popular in PHIL-Philosophy




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/09/15
Some Observations About The Exam Question 1 A common failing of many of those writing on question 1 was to misunderstand Kripke s reasons for supposing that The standard meter is one meter long or Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius is a contingent truth albeit knowable a priori The mistaken reasons often given were that we might have used the boiling point of some liquid other than water as our basis for the Celsius scale or that we might have used the term meter to refer to some other length than the one we in fact use it for These points are entirely irrelevant One might just as well argue that 2 2 4 is contingent because we might have used the symbol 4 as the name of a different number the number 17 perhaps Ifthat was how we decided whether something is necessary or contingent everything would be contingent Cicero is Cicero is contingent since we might have used the word is to mean outweighs for example Suppose that stick S is the stande meter stick and you want to show that it is only a contingent truth that S is one meter long It is bizarre to suppose that the way to show this is to argue that we might have chosen a different length say 20 inches to be the one we dub one meter Consider an analogous case Shaquille O Neal is over 7 feet tall This is true but only contingently so Why The obvious answer is that he might not have been that tall there is a possible world in which Shaq never grew to be more than 6 8 Would you answer the reason why it s only a contingent truth that Shaq is over 7 tall is that we might have meant something quite different by one foot in which case he could have been exactly the same size he actually is but that wouldn t be 7 feet tall That would seem to be a bad joke The contingency lies in the variability of human height its dependence on nutrition and other local conditions etc It does not lie in the fact that we might have given our words different meanings To answer the Kripke question as those mentioned in the rst paragraph did is to make the same mistake What makes the truth that S is one meter long only a contingent truth is that S is a physical object whose dimensions can vary depending on local conditions There is a possible world in which S is longer or shorter than one meter That is what makes S is one meter long contingent One meter is a rigid designator the length of S is nonrigid Compare 7 feet is a rigid designator the height of Shaquille O Neal is nonrigid Question 4 Those writing on question 4 did very well for the most part but there was a widespread mistake made by many people even those who otherwise did very well The mistake came in setting out the proposition expressed by a contextdependent utterance those who made the mistake failed to provide a separate content for each parameter of the context In particular where the context includes an agent a time and a location and the character of the utterance is to ascribe a property P to the agent of the utterance at the Observations on the final exam 2 PHIL 453 time of the utterance and at the location of the utterance then the proposition expressed will be an ordered ntuple lta t l Pgt where a is the agent tis the time I is the location and P is the property So for example if the utterance is I was not here yesterday and the agent is Bill the time is June 5 the location is NYC the property will be expressed by the 3place predicate x is at locationy at time 2 For simplicity s sake I will abbreviate that property as being at The proposition expressed then is ltBill June 4 NYC Nbeing atgt where N expresses negation The mistake many of you made was to identify the proposition as an ordered triple ltBill June 4 Nbeing at NY Cgt This may seem like a very minor point since the location is packed into the property being ascribed but there is an important theoretical difference For if we change the context to one in which the location is different an utterance of the same sentencetype should have exactly the same character although its content will be different In particular in whatever context this sentence is uttered it ascribes the same property albeit to a different agent at a different time and a different place So if Sue utters this sentence on May 8 in Boston she is ascribing to herself at that place and on the prior day the same property Bill was ascribing to himself on June 5 in NYC the property of not being at the place of utterance on the day before the day of utterance So the location of utterance cannot be part of the property ascribed or else Sue in saying I was not here yesterday would be saying that she was not in NYC on May 7 But that s not what she said she said that she wasn t in Boston on May 7 Question 7 Although almost everyone who wrote on Grice did quite well there was a fairly pervasive notion among youimistaken it seems to meithat there are some sentence types that are just plain implicaturefree Those who claimed this did not explicitly say that they had sentencetypes in mind but they made no effort to point out that they were talking about only certain tokens since they did not appeal to the conversational setting in support of their claim And besides the claim is trivial with respect to sentence tokens The idea seemed to be that straightforward descriptive assertions like The cat is on the mat or evaluations like John is a nice guy or invitations like Let s go get dinner are implicature free But it is sentencetokens not sentencetypes that are the bearers of conversational implicature This is not the case with conventional implicatures that s one of the key differences between them Place any one of these allegedly implicaturefree sentences in the right conversational setting and you will nd implicatures Examples A I ve redecorated my living room do you notice anything new B The cat is on the mat B has implicated that there is nothing in the redecoration that is an improvement or even worthy of comment Observations on the final exam 3 PHIL 453 A I m thinking of hiring John to play the saxophone at my weddingiwhat do you think Is he a good musician B John is a nice guy B has implicated that John is not much of a musician A How would you like to go out dancing B Let s go get dinner B has not said that she would not like to go out dancing but she has implicated as much I would contend that there is no sentencetype all of whose tokens are guaranteed to be free of conversational implicatures Put into the right conversational setting any sentence can carry an implicature


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.