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History 177 Week 9 Notes

by: Rachel Sung

History 177 Week 9 Notes HIST 177

Rachel Sung
GPA 3.51

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Week 9 Notes "The Movie Business" & "WWII & Impact on CA"
California History
Gregory Graves
Class Notes
hist, history, history 177, hist 177
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Sung on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 177 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Gregory Graves in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see California History in History at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
The Movie Business Monday, February 29, 20163:25 PM **Midterm #3 March 9th** - Turn of 20th century, motion picture was big thing - Originated with inventor Thomas Edison, who in 1870s, invented the Kinetoscope ○ Picture with light going through them, when you turn the crank, looks like motion picture ○ First movies were made in New York (Also Germany and England) ○ Then move business to CA  Producers came to CA originally because NY was more $$$$ (higher taxes and stricter laws)  Read Ch. 8  Also found that had very good climate, could shoot year-round, had lots of water, had good infrastructure (red cars, highways, trains), lots of electricity  Most motion picture companies move around Hollywood □ It's actually not a real city though…interesting! Most famous city, but not actually a city  Originally city, but had to incorporate the city in order to receive water from Mullholland's aqueduct □ By end of 1810, lots of movie studios moved to LA area □ By 1914, 50 major movie studios in LA area - The Great Train Robbery (1905) ○ First movie (?) Shot in Edison studio ○ Business continues to make movies - D. W. Griffith ○ Made first really big hit movie called Birth of a Nation (1914) ○ Really good filming techniques, bad story (about KKK) - Hollywood started to draw NY actors to CA for movies ○ Ex. Charlie Chaplin  He was a part of the New York/Hollywood Tradition (Eastern Europe migrants perform on NY stage as entertainers/comedians and hired to come out to CA)  Studios were paying him $10k/wk, huge star - People started to go to movies all across the nation - Mary Pickford was the leading female start during this time ○ Known as "America's Sweetheart" in late teens - 20s - By 1920s, Hollywood becoming the glamor capital of the world ○ Actors and actresses were worshipped ○ Advertised products ○ 50% of American population went to movies every week ○ Supply houses were in big business  Made costumes/props for movies - Tom Mix makes dozens of movies - 20s was time of first sex symbols ○ Ex. Rudolph Valentino regarded as sexiest man in the world (not really but probably) ○ Ex. Theda Bera - So CA was becoming the generator for popular culture and setting trends - Movies progress from silent films to talking films - Movies progress from silent films to talking films ○ 1927 Warner Bros make first talking film called The Jazz Singer (before this, producers thought it would be a bad business move)  Immediate success and revolutionized film! Mary Pickford, Tom Mix, Rudolph Valentino, Theda Bera make up The United Artists Al Jolson Then came the Great Depression and people were looking for escape in movies - A lot of movies were about getting peoples mind off the hard times - Movie prices drop to 10 cents (from previous 25 cents) - Ex. Gold Diggers of 1935 choreographed by Busby Berkeley ○ These types of movies were generally about wealthy people with a thin plot to piece together musical numbers ○ We get the first colored movies - Americans first political standup comedian: Will Rogers ○ First he twirled rope (like cowboys) and did tricks but then started to talk --> comedian ○ Then when talking films came out, made millions off movies ○ He always just played himself, people loved him ○ Biggest box office attraction in 1930s ○ Died in plane crash ): (Ironic cuz was trying to show that flying was safe) - Shirley Temple born and raised in LA ○ Was basically trained to be an actress since she was little ○ Biggest box office attraction in late 30s ○ Made number of films with African American performer, Bill Robinson  He would be servant/ranch hand in Southern themed movies  She insisted on him having a role in the movies she was in, whenever possible :DD Late 1930s, epic films start to appear (better color, sound, technology) - Ex. Gone with the Wind based on book, lots of Oscars (11) that year - Ex. The Wizard of Oz - 1939 known as Hollywood's greatest movie year WWII, movie business takes up war effort - Lots of stars were in the service itself - Makes various movies about the war, also training films - Ex. 1942 Casablanca ○ Starring Humphrey Bogart Ingrid Bergmann Mel Blanc(did voices for Warner Bros; Bugs Bunny, Sylvester the Cat, etc.) - Cartoons of WWII are often overlooked (ex. Disney cartoons, Donald Duck wakes up to find himself a Nazi) 1940s was the last "high" for the movie industry - About 90 mill people going to movies - By 1958, dropped to 40 mil people going to movies By 1960s, Movie business gets crushed with the invention of The Tube - Television were in 90% of American homes - By this time there was so much more advanced technology and movie industries were adapting for the TVs ○ They formed the Entertainment industry By 1970s, the Bay area also got a taste of the entertainment industry - The demand for computer generated images was increasing which created jobs for people in the Bay (economic impact) Cultural impact - People from around the world see American films, they mostly see shots of CA - People from around the world see American films, they mostly see shots of CA because that's where they were filmed ○ People around the world thought that they were seeing what the USA was like, but actually only seeing what CA was like ○ Influenced the way people talked, dressed, etc. Plane Daffy World War II & Impact on California Wednesday, March 2, 2016 3:27 PM **Midterm #3** - Part 1: Agribusiness, the grapes of Wrath, and Agricultural Immigration - Part 2: Oil and Highways, Movie Business/Entertainment Industry, or WWII ○ Choose 1 and transition into an overview of modern (post-war) CA  Will get 2 topics, have to choose 1 - Oil business was really big in CA, so when went to war, CA was really able to provide the energy needed for the war - Show business also helped the WWII ○ Made lots of pro-Ally films (ex. how to build train, training exercises, etc.) Lots of changes in nation because of WWII - The economy was doing a lot better from the Great Depression, then they start to prepare for WWII ○ Helped even more to push lower unemployment rates Sept. 1, 1938 - Invasion of Poland - First act of WWII, German took Poland in 3 days - The US starts gets involved to fight the Axis powers (Berlin, German, Italy, Japan) ○ They start to enlist more people into military ○ Start to build more weapons of war --> end of unemployment issue By 1940s, Allies realize they need the US to help out if they want to win - US starts to provide aid to the Allies (clothes, military weapons) - Govt. spending increased ○ Dec. 7, 1941 - Increased even more after the attack on Pearl Harbor  Japanese launch surprise attack at Pearl Harbor  US officially declares war against Japan and the Axis powers History of Japanese in CA - Japanese subjects of emperor couldn't leave Japan until 1868 - Until 1920s, Jap immigration was already limited, then completely cut off - After attack on Pearl Harbor, Americans began to fear a Japanese invasion - Ellwood Pier, Feb, 1942 ○ Japanese submarine comes up and fires at oil rig ○ Thought to be an attack on US - Then discovered that there were other sightings of Jap. Subs off the Pacific coast ○ People grew even more fearful of Japanese invasion Japanese internment - The fear of the Japanese invasion affected people of Jap. Decent - Prez Roosevelt signed executive order to bar certain citizens from sensitive areas ○ So about 19,000 people were removed from "sensitive areas" and relocated - Manzanar was one of the biggest internment camps - There was no evidence of threat ○ It was mainly out of fear and questioned their loyalty - Many were held in these camps for up to 3 years - In Dec. 1944, internment camps ended ○ Some went home, some had no homes to go back to ): - Eventually, govt. issued an apology and $20k compensation for those who were in the camps the camps US starts to spend lots of money on military supplies including aircrafts - One of the main places that focused on aircraft was CA ○ Loughead brothers started a shop in SB, later changed name to Lockheed, moved to Burbank starts to build aircrafts for war John Northrop ○ Donald Douglas  Starts another big aircraft company  Now a part of Boeing - 1933, aircraft industry had about 19k employees (industry wasn't doing that well since not that many people could afford planes) ○ But because of WWII, aircraft industry grew  About 60% of govt. money coming into CA went to the aircraft business  In 1944, 300k employees - Since all the men were going to the military, industries started to hire women ○ By 1945, women were 36% of the work force in the defense industries - Produced about 300k planes by end of WWII ○ Since planes need computer tech, it created the computer industry in CA, post-WWII as well Another major defense industry in CA was ship building - One of the main guys was Henry Kaiser ○ Born in NY, 1910s, come to CA right when the federal highway acts were passed  With his knowledge, he started paving business called Kaiser Construction (built the Colorado River Aqueduct) ○ When WWII began, he wanted to monopolize ship building industry  Started to buy out companies in CA and build ships (LA, Bay Area, Portland, Seattle) ○ At beginning of war, took 25 days to build ship  By end of war, only took around 17 days to build a ship ○ Mostly produced liberty ships (cargo ships) ○ He was super powerful  Wanted to build a steel plant so that he could build ships faster, tells govt., gets money in 1942  Sites location in Fontana, where his state of the art steel plant was located ○ Had 300k people working in his shipyards  There were so many people and wanted to provide a cheap medical plan for his workers □ Eventually became Kaiser Permanente □ Workers would get free health plan, and family members would be only 10cents  Today there are 6 million KP members in CA alone - His sons started to make a car called the Kaiser ○ Didn't work out because they couldn't go up against the big car companies like GM - All other Kaiser industries disappeared in the 50s and now only KP is still here :D Camp Pendleton - Created with the idea that military wanted a training place in the West Coast ○ Wanted to have training exercises in Pacific Ocean - By beginning of 1943, 50k military trainees here - Today, it's still a huge military base that’s used today Camp Irwin - Fed. Govt. buys land in Bakersfield CA so that people could train in conditions - Fed. Govt. buys land in Bakersfield CA so that people could train in conditions similar to desert war zones May 7, 1945 VE Day (Victory in Europe Day) - Nazi surrenders to US But in summer of 1945, war was still going on in the Pacific - Japanese would no surrender even though being constantly bombed - New Prez., Harry Truman, gets word about a secret project ○ Manhattan Project  Had been going on since 1939  Making an atomic bomb that was developed to use on the Germans  They had first successful test: Trinity Test ○ Truman didn't hesitate to use the bomb on Japan ><  Aug. 6, 1945 B12 bombers fly over Hiroshima and drops bomb  Killed 75k people  Japan STILL doesn't surrender so Aug. 9, second bomb dropped on Nagasaki ○ A lot of the framework for the bomb was done in Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in CA ○ Aug. 14, Japan finally surrenders: VJ Day (Victory over Japan Day) - Before, CA was constantly going back and forth between economic prosperity and depression ○ When military is important --> economic prosperity ○ When military dies --> economy dies - But after WWII, the economy didn't go down ○ Because after WWII, Cold War starts and military spending still remains  Aircraft industry becomes aerospace industries  Ship industries become computer industries GI Bill - 1946 passed bill - Gave veterans cheap loans for houses and education - Lead to housing boom and more educated peoples


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