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Social Psychology 206-- Persuasion and Social Influence-- One week of notes

by: Casey B

Social Psychology 206-- Persuasion and Social Influence-- One week of notes Social Psych 206

Marketplace > Southern Illinois University Edwardsville > Psychlogy > Social Psych 206 > Social Psychology 206 Persuasion and Social Influence One week of notes
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one week worth of notes on persuasion and social influence
Social Psychology
Mitsuru Shimizu
Class Notes
Social Psychology Persuasion and Social Influence
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey B on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Social Psych 206 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Mitsuru Shimizu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
Social Psychology-- Persuasion and Social Influence ___________________________________________________  Persuasion: process by which attitudes are changed their communication  There are two routes to persuasion: Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)  Peripheral Route Persuasion: process by which a person does not think carefully about a communication and is influenced by superficial cues such as speaker’s attractiveness. o Is an automatic process  Central Route Persuasion: process by which a person thinks carefully about a communication and is influenced by the strength of its arguments o Controlled process ____________________________________________________ Source: Who says?  Credibility: we believe communicators who are expert and trustworthy  Attractiveness: we believe communicators who are physically attractive  Similarity: we believe communicators who are similar to us Content: What is said?  Arguments: we believe communicators who use many supporting arguments, admit and rebut differing that would have occurred to us and do not try to change our opinions drastically  Appeals to Emotion: we believe communicators who arouse fear and tell us what to do to diminish our fear. Audience: T o whom is it said?  Intelligence: intelligent audiences will comprehend the arguments better  Age: 18-25 year olds change their attitudes more than other adults  Culture: whereas interdependent cultures prefer Collectivistic arguments. Independent cultures prefer Individualistic arguments Other aspects that influence persuasion:  One-sided vs. two-sided appeals: o One-sided appeal is most effective with those who already agree. o Two-sided appeal is most effective when people are aware of opposing arguments  Primacy vs. Recency effects: o The two messages are back to back, followed by a time gap, a primacy effect occurs. o When enough times separates the two messaged and when people make decisions soon after the second message a recency effect occurs  Sleeper effects: delayed increase in the persuasive impact of a noncredible source. o People recall the message but overlook a reason for discounting it ____________________________________________________ How to resist persuasion: Forewarning: people who are warned about an imminent counter-attitudinal communication are less persuaded Inoculation Hypothesis: exposure to walk versions of a persuasive argument increases later resistance to that argument Psychological reactance: people react against threats to their freedom by asserting themselves and perceiving the threatened freedom as more attractive The need for cognition: personality variable that distinguishes people on the basis of how much they enjoy effortful cognitive activities The need for cognitive closure: personality variable that distinguishes people if they prefer a definite answer on a topic to confusion o Not fully made up their minds = more likely to be influenced o Fully made up their minds = less likely to be influenced ____________________________________________________ Individual differences: ▫ Self-monitoring: (Snyder)  high self-monitors tend to use social cues to regulate their behavior  low self-monitors tend to behave according to their own personal preferences ▫ two common techniques:  soft sell: visual image of the product  high self-monitors  hard sell: quality, value and utility of the product  low self-monitors ____________________________________________________ Conformity: the need to change our behaviors and/or cognitions as a result of real or imagined group pressure  Normative Influence: produces conformity when a person fears neg. social consequences  Informational Influence: produces conformity when a person believes others are correct in their judgements Two types of conformity: 1.Public conformity (aka compliance): superficial change in overt behavior, without corresponding change of beliefs produced by group pressure  Mainly caused by normative influences 2.Private conformity: change of beliefs due to personal reasoning  Mainly caused by informational influences When do people conform?  Group size: three to five people elicit more conformity than one or two.  Unanimity: fuels conformity, even only one dissenter usually decreases conformity  Cohesion: more cohesive a group is, the more conformity  Public response: we conform more when they must respond publicly before others Compliance: conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing  Usually elicited by direct requests  Sequential request strategies: o Foot-in-the-door technique: influencer sets the stage for real requests by first getting a person to comply with a smaller request o Self- perception: clarify your attitude o Self-image maintenance o Low-balling: influencer secures agreement with a request but then increases the size of that request by revealing hidden costs o Cognitive dissonance o Commitment & obligation o Door-in-face technique: influencer prefaces the real request with one that is so large it is rejected o Perceptual contrast o Reciprocal concessions ____________________________________________________  Obedience: behavior change produced by the commands of authority o Usually occurs without a corresponding change of attitudes o Recall from Milgram’s study


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