INTRO TO GEN CHEM
INTRO TO GEN CHEM CHEM 110
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This 62 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carmela Kilback on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/192585/chem-110-university-of-washington in Chemistry at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
NOMENCLATURE Naming Compounds Naming Compounds That Contain a Metal and a NonMetal Naming Binary Compounds That Contain only NonMetal Type III Naming Compounds That Contain Polyatomic Ions Naming Acids Writing Formulas from Names Homework Problems 52 911121314 53 19 21 22 54 25 29 31 35 56 39 40 57 41 42 44 46 47 50 COMMON NAMES Water salt sugar Sugar of lead Blue vitriol quicklime NEED FOR A NAMING SYSTEM Name a compound from its formula Construct a formula from the name Learn some rules for naming inorganic compounds NAMlNG BINARY COMPOUNDS METAL AND A NONMETAL Binary Ionic Compounds Metal ions plus nonmetal ions Metal looses an electron Cation Nonmetal gains an electron Anion To name these compounds Simply name the ions e g Na sodium Cl39 chloride NAMING BINARY COMPOUNDS METAL AND A NONMETAL Type I cations Nat Ca2 A13 Form only one type of cation Type II cations Cr 2 and Cr 3 Cu and Cu 2 Fe 2 and Fe 3 Form two or more cations with different charges NAMING BINARY COMPOUNDS METAL AND A NON METAL RULES FOR NAMING TYPE 1 IONIC COMPOUNDS Cation is always named rst and anion second Sodium Chloride and not Chlorine sodide Potassium Iodide and not Iodine potassiuide N A simple cation gets its name from the name of the element LA A simple anion gets its name by taking the rst part of the element name the root and adding ide Chlorine ion is chlori e Iodione ion is iodide NAMING BINARY COMPOUNDS METAL AND A NONMETAL Name AlCl3 Identify ions present Al3 Cl39 Identify Names of the elements Aluminum Chloride Aluminum Group 3 always forms A N 13 LA Group 1 2 3 cation never changes Chlorine Group 7 always forms The name of AlCl3 is Aluminum chloride NAMING BINARY COMPOUNDS METAL AND A NONMETAL NAMING TYPE II IONIC COMPOUNDS Many metals can have more than one type of Cation Cannot use terms like Gold Chloride Iron Chloride Copper chloride TWO OPTIONS 1 Roman Numerals used to specify the charge on the cation Fe II to represent Fe 2 Fe III to represent Fe 3 N The ion with the higher charge has a name ending with iic and the ion with the lower charge has a name ending in fous Ferrous to represent Fe 2 Ferric to represent Fe 3 System 1 prefered System 2 falling into disuse NAMING BINARY COMPOUNDS METAL AND A NONMETAL Name FeZO3 Identify ions present Fe n OZ Identify Names of the elements Iron 11 Oxide Oxide is always 2 3 atoms of oxide 32 6 Since the compounds is neutral 2 atoms of Fe m 6 n 3 The name of F6203 is 11011 Oxide also called Fenic Oxide N L NAMTNG BINARY COMPOUNDS ONLY NON METALS TYPE III RULES FOR NAMING TYPE III COMPOUNDS N L 4 The rst element in the formula is named rst and full element name if used Nitrogen oxide Sulfur dioxide The second element is named as though it were an anion Pre xes are used to denote the number of atoms present mono di tri tetra penta hexa hepta octa The pre x mono is never used for naming the rst element Carbon monoxide not monocarbon monooxide NAMING POLYATOMIC COMPOUND S They are not binary compounds They contain more than two atoms CATIONS Monoatomic Nat Ca 2 Polyatomic N Hf ANIONS Monoatomic Cl39 0239 Polyatomic 803239PO4339 You must memorize the names of common polyatomic ions POLYATOMIC COMPOUNDS ANIONS Monoatomic Cl39 0239 Polyatomic 803239PO4339 OXYANIONS Contain a given element and different numbers of oxygen atoms When there are more than two related members of such oxyanions we use for the one with smaller number of oxygen atoms for the one with higher number of oxygen atoms Sulfite 803239 swim SO42 Nitrite N02 Nitr No3 POLYATOMIC COMPOUNDS OXYANIONS for the one with smaller number of oxygen atoms for the one with higher number of oxygen atoms When there are more than two oxyanions in a series additional prefixes are used Hypo for the one with the fewest oxygens E for the one with the most oxygens ClO39 Mchloriti ClOZ39 chloritj ClO339 chlorate ClO439 chlorate NAMING ACIDS Binary metals with nonmetals are ionic e g NaCl in water gives Na and Cl Acids produce H when dissolved in water One simple way to think of acids is as one or more protons attached to anions eg HCl in water gives H and Cl39 NAMING ACIDS RULES IF THE ANION DOES NOT CONTAIN OXYGEN THE ACID IS NAMED WITH THE PREFIX HYDRO AND THE SUFFIX JC ATTACHED TO THE ROOT NAME OF THE ELEMENT HCl is Emachlorjc acid HZS is Hydrosulfuric acid N IF THE ANION CONTAINS OXYGEN THE ACID IS NAMED FROM THE ROOT NAME OF THE CENTRAL ELEMENT OF THE ANION OR THE ANION NAME WITH THE SUFFIX IQ OR 42115 H3PO4 Phosphoric acid has P043 Phosphate HZSO4 Sulfuric acid has SO4239 Sulfate HZSO3 Sul lr acid has SO3239 Sul te HNO2 Nitrw acid has NOZ39 N itrite WRITING FORMULAS FROM NAMES So far we have looked at formulas and learned rules for writing names It is equally important to see a name and know exactly What the formula is for the compound Calcium chloride CaClZ Cobalt Ill nitrate CoNO33 Lead IV oxide PbO2 MATTER AND ENERGY What is Matter What does it look like Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Changes Elements Molecules and Compounds Mixtures and Pure Substances Methods for separation of Mixtures Energy and Energy Changes iHmnmmnklnd mns 33 34 43 44 45 What is Matter The stuff that the universe is made of It has Mass and it Occupies space What does it look like Solid Rigid Ice Fixed shape and volume Diamond Key Liquid De nite volume Water No de nite shape Gasoline Gas No xed volume Steam No fixed shape Air Oxygen PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Typical physical properties Odor Color Volume State Density Melting point Boiling point PHYSICAL CHANGES Fundamental components don t change Solid Liquid Gas gt gt CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Its ability to form new substances CHEMICAL CHANGES Change in the fundamental Components Reactions Rusting of steel on a car Growth of leaves on a tree PHYSICAL CHANGES OF WATER Solid Liquid Gas ice water a steam Melting Boiling CHEMICAL CHANGES OF WATER H H HH O O gt 00 H H H H Electric Current ELEMENTS Typical Elements Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon Sulfur Iron gold silver A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN INTO OTHER SMALLER SUBSTANCES BY CHEMICAL METHODS COMPOUNDS Typical compounds Water sugar salt gasoline plastic Its ability to form new substances A SUBSTANCE COMPOSED OF A GIVEN COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS THAT CAN BE BROKEN DOWN INTO THOSE ELEMENTS BY CHEMICAL METHODS PURE SUBSTANCE Typical Substance Water coal sugar salt A PURE SUBSTANCE IS AN ELEMENT OR A COMPOUND IT ALWAYS HAS THE SAME COlVIPOSITION ITS MAKEUP CAN BE DEFINED CONCLUSIVELY MIXTURES Typical Mixtures Wood Wine coffee soda bronze air A MIXTURE HAS VARIABLE COMPOSITION IT IS MADE UP OF MORE THAN ONE ELEMENT OR MORE THAN ONE COMPOUND HOMOGENEOUS same throughout HETEROGENEOUS different regions SEPARATION OF MATTER FROM MIXTURES Sand Coffee FILTERATION Homogeneous mixture Contains undissolved matter Pass through a mesh Filter paper Solvent and dissolved matter pass through Undissolved matter collected on filter Seawater DISTILLATION Heat mixture to boiling Liquid evaporates collect by condensation Solid remains behind ENERGY AND ENERGY CHANGES ENERGY Capacity to do work Related to physical changes in matter Related to chemical changes in matter CALORIE Energy Heat required to raise the temprature of one gram of water by one celsius degree JOULE l cal 4184 J CALCULATING ENERGY REQUIREMENTS DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY IN JOULES REQUIRED TO RAISE THE TEMPRATURE OF 740 g of water from 290 C to 460 C 1 g of water 290 C 1 g of water 300 C 4184 I 74g ofwater 290 C 74 g ofwater 300 C 74 X 4184 J 74g of water 290 C 7 4 g of water 460 C 170 X 74 X 4184 I gt 4184 J X 74g X 1700C 526J g C Speci c Change Energy Heat X Mass X 1n Capacity Temprature Required REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Predicting Whether a reaction will occur Reactions with a solid product Describing reactions in aqueous solutions Reactions that form water Acids and Bases Reactions of metals with nonmetals OxidationReduction Reactions Classi cation of reactions Other classi cations Homework Problems 71 2 72 3 4 9101113 21 22 73 25 26 74 39 75 50 76 54 77 61 64 66 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Predicting Whether a reaction will occur JUST BECAUSE A REACTION IS POSSIBLE DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN IT WILL OCCUR THERE ARE TWO ISSUES l WHETHER A REACTION WANTS TO OCCUR Paper oxygen gt carbon dioxide water 4 Reactants Products 2 WHETHER SUFFICIENT ENERGY IS PRESENT TO START THE PROCESS SOME POTENTIAL DRIVING FORCES Formation of a solid Forrnation of removable water Transfer of electrons Formation of a gas REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Reaction is which a solid forms One driving force is formation of a solid PRECIPITATION KCl aq AgNO3 aq Colorless Colorless Precipitate CHEMICAL CHANGE OCCURRED WHAT CHEMICAL REACTION FORMULA DESCRIBES WHAT HAPPENED Break the problem up Reactant entities known What happens when these dissolve in water What possible products could form Can we guess what the precipitate might be Are there rules to guide us on what precipitates REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Reactants dissolving in water KCl aq AgNO3 aq Colorless Colorless The starting solids are ionic compounds They are neutral When dissolved in water they separate and the individual ions move around separately This can be demonstrated through in creased conductivity of water that they are dissolved in STRONG ELECTROLYTE Substance which when dissolved in water increases conductance of water ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Reaetants dissolving in water KCl aq AgNO3 aq Colorless Colorless Q Q K Cl39 Cy Ag NO339 K K Ag Cl N03 K C1 V V Ions separate Ratios of ions determined by original compound K 6160 Cl39 616 Ag 616 NO339 616 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS How to decide what products form KCl aq AgNO3 aq Colorless Colorless K Mfr Cl39 6W Ag a61 N0339 a61 C NO339 C1 K KNo3 KCl Ag Ag NO3 AgCl A Like charged ions don t combine Likely Starting solutions do not precipitate precipitate Products have net charge of zero Think of possible veri cation experiments REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Final Description KC1a61 AgN03 aq Colorless Colorless l AgCl s KNO3 aq White Colorless b N03 Kl Kl N03 AgCl AgCl REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Reaction is which a solid forms One driving force is formation of a solid PRECIPITATION K2CFO4WQ BaNO3 2 CW Yellow Colorless Yellow Precipitate CHEMICAL CHANGE OCCURRED WHAT CHEMICAL REACTION FORMULA DESCRIBES WHAT HAPPENED Break the problem up Reactant entities known What happens when these dissolve in water What possible products could form Can we guess what the precipitate might be Are there rules to guide us on what precipitates REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Reactants dissolving in water K2CTO4aQ BaCNOg 2 CW Yellow Colorless The starting solids are ionic compounds They are neutral When dissolved in water they separate and the individual ions move around separately This can be demonstrated through in creased conductivity of water that they are dissolved in STRONG ELECTROLYTE Substance which when dissolved in water increases conductance of water ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Reactants dissolving in water K2CTO4WQ BaNO3 2 CW Yellow Colorless QG K C1042 Ba2 N03 K K N03 CrO 2 2NO3 K 4 Ba No3 VV Ions separate Ratios of ions determined by original compound 2K aq CrO4239aqBa2aq 2NO339aq REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS How to decide what products form K2CIO4aQ BaNO3 2 CW Yellow Colorless 2K aq CrO4239aqBa2aq 2NO339aq C NO339 CrO4239 K 3 KZCI39O4 Ba2 BaNO3 BaCrO4 A Like charged ions don t combine Likely Starting solutions do not precipitate precipitate Products have net charge of zero Think of possible veri cation experiments REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Final Description chrO4aQ BaNO3 2 CW Yellow 1 Colorless BaCrO4s 2KNO3 aq Yellow Colorless C No3 Kl Kl N03 DESCRIBING REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Observation K2CIO4WQ BaNO3 2 CW Yellow 1 Colorless Yellow Precipitate Molecular Equation K2CYO4aQ B3NO3 2 CW gt BaCrO4s 2KNO3 aq Complete Ionic Equation 2K aq 310421610 Ba2aq 2N0339aq gt BaCrO4s 2K aq 2NO339aq Net Ionic Equation SPECTATOR IONS Ba2aq CrO4239aq gt BaCrO4s ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Reaetants dissolving in water Nast4aQ PbNO3 2 CW QG NaSO4239 Pb2 N05 NO 39 Na 3 Na SO 239 2 N03 N 4 Pb a No3 VV Ions separate Ratios of ions determined by original compound 2Na 6160 304216161 Pb2 616 2NO339 616 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS How to decide what products form Na2SO4aq PbNO3 2 aq 2Na aq SO4239aqPb2aq2NO339aq C NO339 SO4239 Na NaNO3 Na2SO4 Pb2 PbNo3 Pbso4 A Like charged ions don t combine Likely Starting solutions do not precipitate precipitate Products have net charge of zero Think of possible veri cation experiments REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Final Description Nast4aQ PbNO3 2 CW 1 PbSO4s 2N21NO3 aq Precipitate Colorless No3 DESCRIBING REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Observation Na2SO4aQ PbNO3 2 CW Precipitate Molecular Equation Nast4aQ PbNO3 2 CW gt PbSO4s 2NaNO3 aq Complete Ionic Equation 2Na aq 80421610 Pb2aq 2N0339a61 gt PbSO4S 2Na aq 2NO339aq Net Ionic Equation SPECTATOR IONS Pb2aqSO4239aq gt PbSO4S REACTIONS THAT FORM WATER ACIDS AND BASES TWO VERY IMPORTANT CLASSES OF COMPOUNDS Mineral acids known as far back as the 1300 In late 1800s Arrhenius proposed that An acid is a substance that produces H ions protons When it is dissolved in water Strong acids dissociate completely into protons and the counter anion Stong electrolytes HCl g gt H aq Cl39aq HNO3 gt H aq NO339aq HZSO4 gt H aq HSO439aq REACTIONS THAT FORM WATER ACIDS AND BASES TWO VERY IMPORTANT CLASSES OF COMPOUNDS A Base is a substance that produces OH39 ions hydroxide ions when it is dissolved in water Strong bases dissociate completely into hydroxide ions and the counter cation NaOH 3 Na aq OH39aq KOH S K aq OH39aq ACIDS and BASES Dissolved in water HCl aq C Cl39 H Cl39 H H C1 H C1 V Ions separate NaOH aq OH39 Na V Ratios of ions determined by original compound ACIDBASE REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS HCl aq NaOH aq Colorless Colorless H Mfr OH GQN3061C139GQ C OH C1 H H2O HC1 Na NaOH NaCl V Like charged ions don t combine Starting solutions do not precipitate Products have net charge of zero DESCRIBING REACTIONS BETWEEN ACIDS AND BASES Observation HCl aq NaOH aq Colorless l Colorless Colorless Molecular Equation HClaq NaOHaq gt NaClaq H20 0 Complete Ionic Equation H W Cl39aq NaVaq OH39aq gtH20 l Na aq Cl39aq Net Ionic Equation SPECTATOR IONS H aq OH39aq gt H20 1 Note salt formation DESCRIBING REACTIONS BETWEEN ACIDS AND BASES Observation HNO3 aq KOH aq Colorless l Colorless Colorless Molecular Equation HNO3 aq KOHaq KNo3 aq H20 1 Complete Ionic Equation H W NO339aq KVaq OH39aq gtH20 l 10W NOWW Net Ionic Equation SPECTATOR IONS H aq OH39aq gt H20 1 Note salt formation REACTIONS OF METALS WITH NONMETALS OXIDATI ONREDUCTION REACTIONS TO LEARN GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A REACTION BETWEEN A METAL AND A NONMETAL TO RECOGNIZE ELECTRON TRANSFER AS A DRIVING FORCE FOR A CHEMICAL REACTION IONIZATION OF SODIUM IONIZATION OF FLUORINE Na bNae39 Fe 39F Fluorine Fluoride Atom Ion Neutral Sodium Sodium Atom 1011 AN OXIDATIONREDUCTION REACTION m Sodium Fluorine Atom Atom Sodium Fluorine Ion Ion 2Na F2 gt2NaF Examples of OxidationReduction Reactions 2Mgs 02g gt 2Mg0s Mg gt Mg 2 2639 02e gt 02 Examples of OxidationReduction Reactions 2Als FeZO3s gt 2Fes A1203S Al gt Al33e Fe3 3639 gt Fe Examples of OxidationReduction Reactions 2A1s 3123 gt 2A113s Al gt Al33e CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES FOR REACTIONS One Approach FORMATION OF A SOLID KZCrO4 BaNO3 2 gt BaCrO4 2KNO3 Solution Solution Solid Solution Precipitation Reaction Double displacement Reaction FORMATION OF WATER HCl NaOH gt NaCl H20 Solution Solution Solution Liquid AcidBase Reaction TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS 2Na F2 gt 2NaF Solid Gas Solid OxidationReduction Reaction FORMATION OF A GAS 2HC1 NaZCO3 gt co2 H20 NaCl Solution Solution Gas Liquid Solution CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES FOR REACTIONS Another Approach COMBUSTION REACTIONS C3H8 5 O2 gt 3 CO2 4HZO Propane Gas Gas Gas Gas C8H18 2502 gt 16co2 18HZO Gasoline liquid Gas Gas Gas C O2 gt CO2 Coal solid Gas Gas SYNTHESIS COMBINATION REACTIONS 2H2 02 gt H20 C 02 gt co2 N2 02 gt 2N0 DECOIVIPOSITION REACTIONS ZHZO gt 2H2 O2 2HgO gt 2Hg O2 2NaCl gt 2Na Cl2 GASES Gases around us Pressure Pressure and Volume Boyle s law Volume and Temperature Charles s law Volume and Moles Avogadro s Law The Ideal Gas law Dalton s law of partial pressures Laws and Models Kinetic molecular theory Gas stoicheometry Problems 121 81011 122 20 21 23 123 30 33 35 124 42 125 52 58 61 126 70 73 1210 86 89 Matter exists in three common forms Solids liquids gases Gases like other forms of matter occupy space can be consumed in reactions and can be generated in reactions Gases unlike other forms of matter have no xed shape nor a xed volume Gases take on the shape and the volume of the vessel that they are in Gases exert pressure on the surface of the vessel that they are in Pressure exerted on surfaces can be a measure of how much gaseous material is present Other things temperature and volume of the vessel can also effect pressure MEASURING GAS PRESSURE BAROMETER Empty space vacuum 760 mm Hg C Welght of the Weight of the Atmosphere mercury in the column MEASURING GAS PRESSURE MANOMETER Welght of the Atmosphere pressure less than atmospheric MEASURING GAS PRESSURE MANOMETER Welght of the Atmosphere pressure more than atmospheric UNITS OF PRESSURE 1 standard atmosphere 1000 atm 7600 mm Hg 7600 torr 101325 pascals Pa 1469 psi A tire is set at 28 psi pressure What is the pressure in atm 1 atm 1469 psi 28 psiX 1 atm 19 atm 1469 psi
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