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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arielle Reiner on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 81.0 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Fanselow,Erika in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see DRUGS AND BEHAVIOR in Neuroscience at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Neuroanatomy 09092015 The nervous system has 1 main function to keep you alive 3 tasks 0 Gather information from the environment sensory systems 0 Decide what to do groups of neurons in the spinal cord and brain 0 Do it motor systems The nervous system has 2 main divisions CNS and PNS o The sensory part of the peripheral nervous system PNS o Sends what you see hear smell touch taste to the brain so it knows what is there Eg quotGee that large tiger is running toward me very quicklyquot 0 The central nervous system CNS 0 Uses sensory information and previous experience to act on the sensory information it is getting Eg quotHmm Better do something about that Probably best to runquot 0 The motor part of the PNS then acts 0 Eg It sends neuronal signals to muscles so you run hopefully quickly CNS brain and spinal cord 0 PNS outside the skull and spine ie everything else 0 2 sub divisions somatic and autonomic Somatic n Transmits sensory information a Produces movement a Contains nerves to and from the muscles joints skin Autonomic n Controls involuntary musclesbody functions eg heart rate pupil dilation gastrointestinal tract n Helps the body either provide or conserve energy depending on the situation Both divisions of the PNS contain 2 types of nerves n Afferent brings signals to the CNS mnemonic quotafferent arrivesquot n Efferent sends signals from the CNS mnemonic quotefferent exitsquot Somatic somabody o Receives sensory information via afferent sensory neurons 0 Sends commands to muscles via efferent motor neurons Terminology o Neuron 1 nerve cell 0 Nerve multiple neurons projecting together outside the brain can contain both afferent and efferent neurons Sympathetic PNS o Arouses the body for action eg increase heart rate and blood pressure 0 Mediates the quotfight or ightquot response 0 Functions to know Dilates pupils Accelerates heartbeat Constricts blood vessels in skin Parasympathetic PNS o Opposite of sympathetic prepares the body to quotrest and digestquot o Reverses the quotfight or ightquot response 0 Functions to know Constricts pupils Slows heartbeat Dilates blood vessels in skin Diagram Nervous system CNS Brainspinal cord Nervous system PNS Somatic OR autonomic Autonomic Sympatheticparasympathetic CNS Spinal cord 0 The spinal cord is inside the spine ie runs on the inside of the vertebrae o Afferent nerves carry sensory information to the spinal cord which transmits this input to the brain 0 Efferent neurons that control muscles go from the brain through the spinal cord to the muscles CNS brain Forebrain o Basal ganglia Circuit involving the basal ganglia uses dopamine a neurotransmitter Involved in initiation and control of movement affected in Parkinson s disease 0 Limbic system Hippocampus a Memory and learning u If both are gone you cannot make new memories Amygdala n Emotional responses Cingulate cortex n Emotional component of pain 0 Neocortex Outer part of the brain Can be divided into 4 main regions a Occipital love 0 Vision n Parietal lobe Touch Perception of the body a Temporal lobe Hearing 0 In conjunction with the limbic system learning memory emotion Frontal lobe Control of movement 0 Planning and directing behavior including control of inappropriate behaviors El Midbrain o Tectum Sensory and motor re exes Eg hear a loud sound and turn head toward it really fast 0 Tegmentum Drug addiction I Contains neurons responsible for rewarding behavior and these neurons change in response to different types of drugs Schizophrenia Movement 0 Hindbrain o Cerebellum Controls complex movements Cannot coordinate movement well if damaged 0 Pons Neuronal connections between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex Goes around bottom of brain Sends motor signals 0 Medulla oblongata Controls breathing heart rate digestion blood pressure 0 Reticular formation runs inside the midbrain Regulates sleep v waking Santiago Ramov Cajal Scientist who made tremendous contributions to understanding neurons 0 He showed that the nervous system is made up of discrete cells which are the unit of brain function 2 general types of cells in the nervous system Neurons main job is to receive and transmit signalsinformation in the nervous system 0 Soma contains the DNA and proteins to keep the neuron functioning o Myelin insulates some neurons and increases the speed at which they can send signals 0 Axon transmits a signal from the somaaxon hillock to the end of the neuron where neurotransmitter is relased from the terminal boutons aka synaptic boutons o Direction neuronal signals travel Dendrites receive input from other neurons that send input to the soma If the soma receives a sufficient signal from the dendrites it send a signal down the axon to the terminal boutons Glia glue main job probably is to support neurons by providing structural support nutrients and protection 0 They also maintain the composition of CSF near neurons in the brain What is inside a cell 0 DNA molecules in the DNA are a code for proteins the body needs 0 Parts of the DNA code are copied so the proteins they represent can be produced by a cell 0 The cell then makes proteins that are used by the cell to do what it needs to do 0 ln neurons these proteins include things like neurotransmitters and receptors Glial cells Astrocytes 0 Provide structural support for neurons 0 Maintain the right amounts of ions in the CSF 0 Contribute to the blood brain barrier Oligodendrocytes 0 Form myelin around axons in the CNS Schwann cells 0 Form myelin around axons in the PNS
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