GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHEM 152
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carmela Kilback on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 152 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/192597/chem-152-university-of-washington in Chemistry at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Chem 152A Review Topics Chapter 13 A L Kwiram Why do molecules form What are the two contributions to the potential energy in the hydrogen moleculeion Why do we use the term quotmolecular orbitalquot MO Know pictorial representation for molecular orbital molecular bond H2 Meaning of terms quotbondingquot and antibonding orbitals and how they differ generally in terms of electronic distribution probability Potentia energy curve vs R for H2 and H2 mportance of net OVERLAP Understand 39 a quot quot concept 3 Understand origin of dipole moment polar bond Bond energies and how to calculate AH of reaction from bond energies Bond length strength trends for diatomic molecules Geometry of polyatomics via Repulsion Theory onic bonds how polar a bond is Lattice stabilization energy and net AH to go from elements in standard state to ionic crystal Know how to carry out such a calculation Know how to construct Lewis dot structures octet rule recipe for using Special stability of noble gas configurations stability of half filled shells Exceptions to octet rule how to handle deficit of electrons excess electrons Role of central atom What are typical oxidation states of elements and how is this related to number of bonds an atom typically forms How and when to form double and triple bonds Concept of resonance in forming Lewis dot structures Forma charge and how do decide between alternate structures that seem to satisfy the octet rule Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory VSEPR Theory recipe for using Distinguish between electronpair structure where the electrons are and molecular structure where the atoms are Critical role of central atom how is it chosen Relative energetics of nn gt nb gt bb interactions and how that affects bond angles Understand important role that lone pairs nonbonded pairs play in structure Understand the different kinds of molecular structures and the names for them Linear triangular trigonal planar trigonal 39 39 39 39 etc 39 39 39 39 square planar square pyramidal bent etc How bond angle changes with increasing number of lone pairs How bond angle changes as you go from negative ion to neutral to positive ion Species with an odd number of electrons are magnetic they have a magnetic dipole moment that orients in a magnetic field just like a molecule with an electric dipole moment orients in an electric field The magnetic property is due in this case to the magnetic moment of the unpaired electron I l quot quot trends yT Chem 152A W O6 Review Topics Chapters 9amp10 A Kwiram Review Topics for Chapter 9 Meaning of system and surrounding Signi cance of the two modes of exchanging energy heat and work Depending on the process the overall distribution between q and w change but their sum qw E is constant Meaning of a state function and why q and w are not state functions or thermodynamic functions What are the 39measurables39 soated adiabatic isothermal reversible spontaneous w Popp AV if only PV work considered AE qw and AE qv Why do we introduce AH CpAT qp AH What is Cp Cpbar cp What is signi cance ofAHphase transition Reference state for enthalpy heat of formation and reaction Know how to apply Hess39 Law Know how to use standard enthalpies of formation for a reaction Review Topics for Chapter 10 The Joule experiment and its signi cance What is AE for free expansion of an ideal gas Why The second law Entropy S d8 2 qT Only for reversible processes is d8 qm T For an isolated system dS gt 0 Entropy a measure of randomness Know how to generate a reversible path for a process so that qrev can be measured and AS determined What is expression for wrev for isothermal expansion Know how to calculate entropy as a function of T P V and know when to use which Combination of1st amp 2nd Law leads to idea of free energy AETSGHTS AG 0 means equilibrium AG lt 0 means spontaneous as written AH wrev AG wnet ie work otherthan PV work AG AG RTInQ In K AG RT Molar Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Potential dea of wnet and conditions under which it can be extracted How are AG values ultimately determined Know how to determine AG for a process Know how to use standard entropies and free energies of formation for a reaction Know how the former differs from the latter in the way elements are handled What the signs of AH and AS say about AG How does AG lead to K and how does K change with T Know how to calculate AG at other than standard temperature or conditions Know the master equation for AG Understand phase transitions Know how knowledge of heat capacity is necessary to calculate absolute entropy The Third Law How the different thermodynamic quantities relate to each other when gases are or are not involved in a process Know how K depends on temperature Know how to calculate PV change in an adiabatic process as well as work Everything else I ve missed z39Chem 1521 Exams HE IReview Topics Chs 9amp10dac ALK011606 Page 1 Review Key 1 C2H4 302 62w2 21120 2 Q1 3K a C12 F2 EZCZF reaction 1 2C1F F2 gtClF3 reaction 2 C12 3F2 EZCZF3 The total reaction 2 2 2 CW C1F3 Q ClFS Q Q 2 eta Clzllel ClFlzle2 T I ClzllF2l3 1 2 H PO H 0 2 4H 3 l 75x10 3 H3P04 Need concentrations at equilibrium therefore set up reaction table H3PO4 HZOHHZPO H30 Initial 025 050 0 Change x X X Equilibrium 025 x 0 50x X Sub the equilibrium concentrations into the expression for Ka and solve for H3O H2P0H30 050 xH30 75 10 3 x H3P04 025 x z 2H30 375x10 3 M 2 H30 pH 10gH30 243 Page 2 4 50 ml of 01 M HCl corresponds to 5 mmoles of HCl 25 ml of 01 M NaOH corresponds to 25 mmoles of NaOH Therefore 25 mmoles of HCl are neutralized and 25 remain Need to determine concentration which is mmoles divided by total solution volume HCl 2 M 0033M 75ml Now HCl is a strong acid such that dissociation to hydronium ion is complete and the concentration of HCl determined above will be the concentration of hydronium ion at equilibrium HCl 1130 0033M pH 10gH30 log0033 148 5 Use BaF2 as an example of solubility BaF2s eBazmaq 2F aq Initial solid 0 0 Change x X 2x Equilibrium solid x X 2x Putting these concentrations into the equilibrium expression for a dissolving solid 6 2 7 2 2 3 Kw 17x10 2 Ba F x2x 4x 1 K 3 x i 75x10 3 4 44 99 The quantity X is referred to as the solubility The other two salts are of the same stoichiometry therefore the larger Ksp the greater solubility BaF2 is the most soluble salt of the three Page 3 P1212 s apb aq 2raq 6 Initial solid 0 005 Change x X 2x Equilibrium solid x X 0052x Putting these concentrations into the equilibrium expression for a dissolving solid KW 14x10 8 1322r2 x005 2x2 z x0052 x K 0 032 56x10 6 gt 1321 56x10 6M
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