Physical Anthropology Week 6 Notes
Physical Anthropology Week 6 Notes Anth 385
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Johnson on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 385 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Barbian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Physical Anthropology Week 6 2/29/16 Macroevolution ● The evolutionary process that occurs at a big scale\ ● Such as speciation Continental Drift ● Can induce volcanic activity, mountain building and earthquakes ● Evolutionary ramifications as groups of animals became isolate from each other by water boundaries Mammalian Evolution ● Cenozoic = rage of the mammalian ● When mammals take over from the raptials Mammalian Characteristics ● Homoiothermy ○ Constant energy ● Fur ● Sweat Glands ● Heterodontism ○ Having different kinds of teeth ○ Allows for more effective processing of food ● Stronger teeth ● Viviparity = live birth ● Mammary glands ● Mammalian Play ● Internal eardrum and external ear flap ● Four chambered heart ○ More blood flow = more air flow ■ More sustained activity ● More efficient limb structure ○ Less energy used because the skeleton supports the body Types of Mammals ● Monotremes ○ Lay eggs ● Marsupials ○ Pouched Animals (Australia) except for the Possum ● Placentals Processes of Macroevolution ● Adaptive RAdiation ○ Rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches Physical Anthropology Week 6 2/29/16 ● Breaking up of the African jungle into the Savannah allowed for new niches for Humanoids Adaptive Radiation ● Species will diverge into many variations as two factors allow ○ Its adaptive potential ○ The adaptive opportunities of the available zones Physical Anthropology Week 6 2/29/16 Processes of Macroevolution ● Generalized and Specialized Characteristics ○ Refer to adaptive potential of a particular traits ○ Adaptive potential of whole organisms ○ Traits adapted for many functions = generalized ○ Trait limited to a narrow set of functions = specialized ● Tempo and MOde of Evolutionary Change ○ Phyletic gradualism ■ Change accumulating gradually ■ Transitional forms ○ Punctuated equilibrium ■ Long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of changes ■ Speciation major influence in evolutionary change Speciation ● Process by which new species evolve from prior species ● Basic process in macroevolution ● Geographical isolation ● Behavioral Isolation ○ nocturnal and diurnal ● Cumulative effects of genetic drift and natural selection Species ● Biological species ○ Individuals capable of fertile interbreeding ● Recognition species concept ○ Ability of individuals to identify members to their own species ● Ecological species concept ○ Group of organisms exploiting a single niche ■ Emphasizes natural selection ■ (polar bear and grizzly bears may be the same species) ○ Phylogenetic species concept ■ Identifiable parental pattern of ancestry ● In populations phenotypic or genotypic ● In fossil populations only phenotypic is possible Interpreting the Fossil Record ● Variation exists in all populations ● Individual variation ● Age or developmental changes ● Sexual dimorphism ● Intraspecific or interspecific variation Physical Anthropology Week 6 2/29/16 Group Composition ● At least one female and offspring ● Usually several individuals: from 6 to a hundred Types of social groups ● Single adult male, several adult females and their offspring ○ Only one male actively breeds ○ Usually females form the permanent nucleus of group ○ Most common social group (common for most mammals) ● MultimaleMultifemale ○ Several adult males, several adult females, and their offspring ○ Many males reproduce ○ Dominance hierarchy ■ Matrilines ● The females are the permanent members of the group, males are forced out when they’re an adult male ● Monogamous pair ○ Mate pair and its young ○ Minimal sexual dimorphism ○ Territoriality ○ Least common social group ● Polyandry ○ One female and two males ○ Seen only in NWM ○ Male participate in care of infants ● Solitary ○ Individual forage for food alone (Orangutan MotherInfant Bonds ● Key to proper social interaction & survival later in life ● Learn strategy by observation and imitation ● Long learning periods is and adaptive strategy Peer Group Interactions ● Play groups ● Young primates of similar age associate for increasing periods of time ● Learn adult behavior ● Establish dominance hierarchy Communication ● Vocal and nonvocal signals ● Vocal signals are discrete, directed signals ● Nonvocal communication utilizes body, especially head and face Physical Anthropology Week 6 2/29/16 ● Fine muscle control and face ● Displays are elaborate combinations of behaviors Affective Behaviors ● Promote group cohesion ○ Grooming ○ Huddling ○ Mounting ○ Play ○ Alliances Mounting ● Ritualized behavior ● Higher ranking individuals mount hindquarters of subordinates ● Expresses dominance ○ Not sex ○ May be same sex individuals ● May help dissolve issues Grooming ● Occurs in a variety of contexts ○ Mothers groom infants ○ Males groom sexually receptive female ○ Subordinates groom the dominant ● Provide reassurances during tense situations ● Restores peaceful relationships Dominance ● Impose degree of order ● Aggression frequently used a means of increasing status ● Measured by access to resources ○ Food ○ Mating Partners ● Not permanent and changes throughout life ● Learned Behavior