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Week 1 Physiological Psych. Notes

by: Emily Jackson

Week 1 Physiological Psych. Notes 372

Marketplace > George Mason University > 372 > Week 1 Physiological Psych Notes
Emily Jackson
Physiological Psychology

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Week one: lectures 1 & 2
Physiological Psychology
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Jackson on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 372 at George Mason University taught by Boggs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/15
Organization of the Nervous System WlLl 09092015 Behavior 0 Behavior is the result of stimulation from our environment that the brain uses to produce perception Perception is the subjective experience of reality 0 When you reach for the telephone your brain directs the reaching movement in response to vibrating molecules of air hitting the eardrum and allowing for the perception of a ringtone Behavior differs among individuals because of perception Perceptionsubjective reality is best understood by comparing different animals 0 Dogs have the ability to perceive sounds that humans cannot This doesn t mean their nervous system functions better than outs it means their perceptual worldreality is different than ours Adaptabilityeach species is equipped with a view of the world that helps it survive Brain plasticity Subjective reality is different for people with various de cits blindness deafness 0 Blind subjects have activation of their primary visual cortex when reading braille o This is an example of neuroplasticity the brains ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections 0 The brain is also plastic in the sense that connections among neurons in a given functional system are constantly changing in response to experience 0 In order to learn anything new neural circuits have to change in order to represent and store this new information 0 As we learn a new language or instrument the cortical regions that take part can actually increase in size to accommodate the learning Scientists at London University College discovered that London taxi drivers had different hippocampi compared to others After performing brain scans on healthy controls versus taxi drivers taxi drivers had larger posterior hippocampi Although post Hipp Was larger due to spatial knowledge of the city anterior hippocampi were smaller Organization of the nervous system 0 The NS has 2 major divisions CNS and PNS 0 Together the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system CNS o All of the neurons and nerve bers radiating outside of the brain and spinal cord make up the peripheral nervous system PNS Both divisions are composed of neurons nerve cells that can communicate with one another with sensory receptors with muscles and with internal organs Nerves of the PNS carry sensory information into the CNS 0 This is called afferent information and it travels via afferent nerves Nerves of the CNS send motorcommands out to the PNS to move the body s muscles including those for blood circulation and digestion o This is called efferent information and travels via efferent nerves The peripheral nervous system is further divided into somatic and autonomic divisions o Somatic nervous system SNS includes all the spinal and cranial nerves carrying sensory information to the CNS from the muscles joints and skin 0 Autonomic nervous system ANS balances the body s internal organs to rest and digestquot through parasympathetic nerves fight or ightquot through sympathetic nerves Divisions of the nervous system The sympathetic nervous system is important for our fight or ightquot response 0 Increases heart rate 0 Slows digestion o Dilates pupils The ght or ight response is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful or threatening event The parasympathetic nervous system directly opposes the sympathetic nervous system and is responsible for quotrest and digestquot bodily functions 0 Slows heart rate 0 Increases digestion o Constricts the pupils Eyes enstr icts pupils Li 39 gm all li Heart Beat more slainwa Linings En nstr ic ts airways igestinn Stimulates digestion Muscles Head HEEE bleed flew to skeletal muscles Surface features of the brain 0 Divided into left and right hemispheres as well as 4 lobes Cerebral cortex is the outer portion of the forebrain o Gyrus the ridges or raised areas of cortex gyriplural o Sulcus the quotvalleysquot or grooves that separate gyri sulci plural Fissure a long deep sulcus n Medial longitudinal ssure separates the left and right hemisphere o The left and right hemispheres of the brain are able to communicate with each other through bundles of axons that are referred to as the corpus callosum metal lobe Parietal lobe Decipital I he Temporel I lube Frontal lobes The primary motor cortex is located just anterior to the central sulcus 0 Controls ne motor movements such as moving one nger at a time o The most anterior region of the frontal lobes is the prefrontal cortex 0 Speech production 0 Working memory 0 Decision making 0 Impulse control 0 Planning movement especially those related to context Parietal lobes Lies between the occipital lobes and the central sulcus The primary somatosensory cortex is located just posterior to the central sulcus and receives information about touch 0 Important for orienting the body in space and directing our movements toward a goal 0 When performing a goal 0 When reaching to grasp an object Temporal lobes Located laterally and is the primary target for auditory information 0 Primary auditory cortex 0 Also a target for olfactory information 0 Primary olfactory cortex 0 Essential for understanding spoken language and for musical abilities Also contributes to complex aspects of vision such as facial recognition 0 Important for emotional and motivational behaviors o KluverBucy syndrome inappropriateirrational fears Occipital lobes Located at the posterior end of the cortex and is the main target for visual information 0 Primary visual cortex or striate cortex because of its striped appearance in crosssection Area of the occipital lobes known as primary visual cortex processes visual information and damage results in cortical blindness in the related part of the visual eld Summary Frontal lobes motor function 0 Motor planning 0 Decision making 0 Speech production Parietal lobes somatosensation 0 Body position in space 0 Temporal lobes audition 0 Understanding speech Occipital lobes vision 0 Color recognition The ventricular system Central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain are lled with cerebrospinal uid CSF CSF is produced in the ventricles by ependymal cells and ows from the lateral ventricles a third ventricle a fourth ventricle o Exits the fourth ventricle medially and enters the central canal o Exits laterally and lls the space between the brain and meninges CSF is important because it provides buoyancy for the brain and helps cushion the brain when the head moves The meninges The brain and spinal cord are the most protected organs in the body 0 Encased in bone Skull Vertebrate 0 Covered by the meninges Dura mater Arachnoid mater n Subarachnoid space Cerebrospinal uid Pia mater One way to remember these is that these PAD the brain someone taps your forehead to DAP you Cells of the nervous system The nervous system consists of two kinds of cells 0 Neurons receive information and transmit it to other cells 0 Glia support cells of the nervous system Structurefunction of neurons The surface area of a neuron is increased by its extension into dendrites and an axon Dendrites are specialized structures for receiving information Axons are specialized structures for sending information Dendrites can further increase or decrease the surface area of a neuron by growing or retracting dendritic spines Dendritic spines grow off of dendritic branches 0 A neuron can have 120 dendrites each with several branches A single dendritic branch can have thousands of dendritic spines Each neuron has only a single axon that carries information to other neurons The single axon can branch out into 1 or many axon collaterals that emerge at right angles The axon begins at the axon hillock the region extending directly off of the cell body 0 Region of the cell where action potentials are generated At the end of the axon is the axon terminal the region of the cell specialized for sending information to other cells muscles organs etc Covering the axon of many cells is a fatty substance known as myelin 0 Important for speeding neuronal conduction by providing insulation Gaps in myelination along the axon are called nodes of ranvier action potentials get repropagated here 0 The axon terminal sits very close to the dendritic spines of another neuron The space between a dendritic spine and an axon terminal is called a synapse o A synapse is the point of information transfer from one neuron to another Axon terminals contain synaptic vesicles which house neurotransmitter molecules NT 0 Synaptic vesicles are spherical structures that can fuse to the cell membrane and release their contents 0 When a cell sends information to another cell it does so by releasing NTs from its terminal buttons onto the dendritic spines of another cell 0 This process is called exocytosis Internal structure of a cell 0 The uid found outside of a neuron is called extracellular uid 0 Has a large number of Na ions salt isn t great and we want that out of us 0 The uid found inside of a neuron is called intracellular uid 0 Has a large number of K ions potassium is high in bananas and we want that in us 0 The inside of a neuron is separated from the outside by the cell membrane 0 The cell membrane is composed of two layers of fat molecules called a phospholipid bilayer o The phospholipid bilayer sticks together because each of the two layers contains hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails Protein channels embedded in the membrane make it semi permeable and allow controlled ow of water sodium potassium calcium chloride and other important chemicals 0 This is especially important because if too much water enters a cell it can burst and if not enough water enters it can shrivel Cells of the nervous system 0 There are 3 functional neuron types in the nervous system 0 Sensory afferent neurons bring information into the CNS from sensory receptors that are embedded in peripheral organs 0 Motor efferent neurons carry information from the CNS to muscles 0 lnterneurons connect sensory and motor activity in the CNS Three Types of Neurons Cell bed v 39 rev 1quot Cell atly lDireetiein Elf eenduetlan Axum There are 5 types of glial cells found in the nervous system Ependymal cells Astrocytes Microglia Oligodendrotcytes o Schwann cells Glial cells do not transmit information as neurons do rather they provide support nutrients and protection for neurons Ependymal cells are small oval shaped cells which line the walls of the ventricles and secrete cerebrospinal uid CSF Astrocytes are star shaped cells that provide structural support within the nervous system 0 Astrocytes play a huge role in keeping the brain healthy by forming the bloodbrain barrier BBB Microglia are the immune cells of the nervous system 0 They identify and engulf foreign invaders and dead cells a process called phagocytosis Many neurons that need to communicate over long distances are insulated with myelin sheath Myelin sheath in the w is provided by oligodendrocytes which wrap themselves about 20 times around the axon of a CNS neuron Myelin sheath in the m is provided by schwann cells 0 O O O Protein channels Protein channels embedded in the cellular membrane allow for semipermeability 0 Passive channels Passive transport 0 Transport pumps Require ATP for active transport 0 Gated channels Semipermeability means that there will be controlled ow of ions across the cell membrane Protein channels are selective 0 They allow some ions to pass through and prevent the passage of others Channel selectivity depends on o The charge of the ion 0 The siie of the ion Passive channels allow ions to move freely across the membrane down their concentration gradient 0 Also referred to as leak channels because they are always open and ions are always moving through them Transport pumps require energy in the form of ATP to move ions against their concentration gradient 0 The NaK pump actively pumps 3 Na ions out of the cell and 2 K ions into the cell Gated channels remain closed unless they are signaled to open Types of gated channels 0 Voltage gated Openclose in response to changes in voltage across the membrane 0 Ligand gated Open only when an appropriate chemical neurotransmitter binds Resting Membrane Potential Neurons have two electrochemical states 0 Resting inside of neuron 7O mv polarized more negative inside then outside More Na ions outside cell More K ions inside cell 0 Firing inside of neuron depolarizes becomes more positive than outside of neuron Results from movement of ions inout of the cell during an action potential When a neuron is not sending or receiving messages its considered at restquot At rest the inside of the cell has a slightly negative charge compared to the outside of the cell which has a positive charge The voltage difference across the membrane is the resting membrane potential and is usually around 70 mV When the cell is at rest Na ions ow down their concentration gradient through passive channels leak channelsquot 0 Move from an area of high concentration outside cell to an area of low concentration inside cell 0 Very few Na leak channels so very little Na moves across membrane When the cell is at rest K ions also move down their concentration gradient through passive channels 0 From an area of high concentration inside cell to an area of low concentration outside cell 0 Many K leak channels so a lot of K is pulled out of the cell The force acting on both Na and K to move them down their concentration gradients is called a diffusion force When a lot of K moves to the outside of the cell the inside of the cell becomes increasingly negative 0 K is a positively charged ion and the inside of the cell is losing this positive charge 0 Additionally there are many negatively charged organic molecules anions located inside of the cell This creates an electrochemical gradient causing K to be drawn back into the cell by an electrical force o The negatively charged interior of the cell attracts the positive charge of the K ion Other relevant ions include o Chloride C a concentrated outside 0 Calcium Ca2 a concentrated outside 0 Negatively charged organic ions anions a concentrated inside In addition to the movement of Na and K through passive channels the NaK pump is actively pumping 3 Na ions out and 2 K ions in o Prevents ions from reaching concentration equilibrium When ion concentrations across the cell membrane change the voltage changes 0 Graded potentials are small voltage uctuations that are restricted to the vicinity of the axon where where the ion concentration has changed 70 a 73 70 a 68 Any deviation away from the resting potential in a more negative direction is called hyperpolarization Any deviation away from the resting potential in a more positive direction is called depolarization The Action Potential A disturbance in the cells resting potential that causes a large shift in voltage in a more positive direction depolarization is called an action potential AP 0 70 a 50 Action potentials are the result of excitatory neurotransmitters NT binding to chemically gated protein channels receptors causing them to open and allowing Na to ow inward Once sodium begins to ow inward the voltage changes 0 The inside starts to become more positively charged 0 The cell becomes depolarized Once the cell reaches approximately 50 mV it has reached its threshold potential 0 Not all excitatory NT binding will result in an AP 0 The NT binding has to depolarize the cell until it reaches its threshold potential When the threshold potential for a neuron has been reached voltage gated Na channels and voltage gated K channels open Voltage gated Na channels open before K channels do 0 This results in more inward ow of Na before the K channels open Once the cell become depolarized to around 30 mV this is called the peak phase of the action potential 0 Na channels snap shut o K channels remain open They are slower to open and slower to close than Na channeb Because potassium is owing out of the cell and Na is no longer moving across the membrane the cell begins to repolarize and become more negatively charged K channels are slow to close and as a result so much K exits the cell that the cell s voltage actually dips below the resting membrane potential 0 This is called the undershoot phase Relative refractory period The cell returns back to the resting membrane potential due to the actions of the NaK pump 0 Additional K outside of the cell diffuses away The key ion for depolarization during an action potential is Na o Na in ux results in depolarization The key ion for repolarization during an action potential is K o K ef ux results in repolarization While the cell is ring an action potential it is in an absolute refractory period 0 No other action potential can be red during this time 0 While the cell is in its undershoot phase it is in a relative refractory period 0 Another action potential can be generated but it is dif cult Refractory periods ensure that an AP remains unidirectional 0 An AP can only occur in a region of axon that is not triggering an AP 0 An AP always starts in an axon and propagates without loss along the axon 0 There are Na and K channels embedded along the entire axon The allornone law states that the amplitude and velocity of an AP are independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it assuming the stimulus meets threshold 0 For a given neuron all APs are equal in intensity and velocity though the intensity and velocity can vary from neuron to neuron A strong stimulus will not re a stronger or faster AP than a weak stimulus but it will cause the neuron to re more frequently Propagation of an Action Potential 0 An action potential is generated at the axon hiock of a neuron The action potential has to travel the length of an axon and reach the presynaptic terminal 0 In a myelinated axon action potentials get regenerated at the nodes of ranvier Spaces of unmyelinated axon along the length of the axon where the AP repropagates The nodes of ranvier are spaced close enough together that an AP occurring at one node can trigger the opening of voltage gated channels at an adjacent node 0 Action potentials are said to quotjumpquot from node to node 0 This ow of energy is called saltatory conduction Integrating Information Neurons don t receive information from just 1 cell at a time 0 They are constantly receiving information from multiple cells onto their multiple dendritic spines 0 The more spines a neuron has the more information it can receive 0 Cells can receive excitatory information or inhibitory information from other cells 0 Excitatory neurotransmitters increase the likelihood that a cell will re an action potential Ex Glutamate o Inhibitory neurotransmitters decrease the likelihood that a cell will re an action potential Ex GABA What if a neuron is receiving multiple excitatory and inhibitory inputs at the same time o The neuron has to integrate all of the synaptic inputs and make a decision whether or not to re 0 The neuron works this out like a math problem 0 2 excitatory inputs 5 inhibitory inputs inhibitory decreased likelihood of AP 0 7 excitatory inputs 4 inhibitory inputs excitatory increased likelihood of AP o If the sum of inputs is inhibitory the neuron generates an inhibitory post synaptic potential IPSP o The neuron hyperpolarizes and decreases the probability of an AP o If the sum of inputs is excitatory the neuron generates an excitatory post synaptic potential EPSP o The cell depolarizes and increases the probability of an AP lPSPs and EPSPs are graded potentials and can result from either temporal summation or spatial summation Temporal summation or quotsummation over timequot is the idea that repeated stimulation within a short period of time can have a cumulative effect Spatial summation is the idea that synaptic inputs from different locations can combine their effects on a single neuron


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