MAR GEOL AND GEOPHY
MAR GEOL AND GEOPHY ESS 410
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Jeanette Keebler on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESS 410 at University of Washington taught by William Wilcock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/192642/ess-410-university-of-washington in Earth And Space Sciences at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
OceanESS 410 Here is a list of topics that might come up on the mid term Labeled cross section of a tectonic plate Class 1 slide 3 Know and be able to sketch the basic structure of the Earth crust lowerupper mantle core with approximate thickness of each and understand the concept of planetary differentiation Class 1 slides 45 Be able to brie y describe the working of earth as a heat engine sources of heat processes by which heat is transported through the Earth Class 1 slides 69 Be able to identify tectonic features of a global scale map of topographybathymetry How to identify tectonic features on a planetary map and interpret them in terms of plate tectonics Labs 1 amp 2 Why is plate tectonics absent on Mars and Venus Lab 2 and followup PowerPoint see also Class 7 slide 6 for Venus Obtaining a kilometer scale from a latitude and longitude map Lab 3 Remember 111 km 1 degree of latitude Understand the historical process of triangulation Class 2 Understand how GPS works Class 2 Be able to explain why maps of the sea surface position the Geoid constrain the bathymetry of the sea oor What happens to the sea surface above a seamount and why Class 2 Basic understanding of how multibeam bathymetry measurements are made Class 2 Basic characteristics of earth s magnetic field Orientation and relative strength at poles and equator Class 3 Know the different kinds of rock magnetization and their use in paleomagnetism Class 3 Concept of paleomagnetism polar wander and explanation in terms of plate tectonics Class 3 Concept of magnetic stripesisochrons how are they created and how are they used to determine spreading rates and date the oceanic crust Class 3 and Lab 3 Definition of crust mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere class 5 slides 45 dT d What the terms are and how to use it to 3 determine the heat ow Class 5 and class 4 exercise Fourier s Law of Heat Conduction q Why the thickness of the lithosphere increases as the square root of age principle explored in Class 4 exercise and Class 5 Consequence of plate cooling for the depth of the sea oor Class 5 and Lab 5 and heat ow Class 5 How is heat ow measured OceanESS 410 The approximate equation relating cooling time to cooling depth m or equivalently 2 What the terms are and how to use the equation to predict a cooling depth the thickness K39 of the lithosphere or a cooling time Class 5 Characteristics of earthquakes how many and how deep along different plate boundaries Class 6 also Lab 1 Know what an earthquake is how earthquake sizes are classi ed and the different types of body and surface waves Class 6 Understand how seismic waves propagate through the earth refraction effects of interfaces along many different paths and how this constrains the internal structure of the earth Class 6 Be able to identify seismic body wave arrivals for a teleseismic earthquake interpret a seismic travel time curves and locate an earthquake using Swave minus Pwave arrival times and F wave arrival times Lab 6 Understanding of the asthenosphere Where is it Why is it weak The role of water in making it weak Role of asthenosphere in lubricating and decoupling plate motions from the underlying mantle Understand why locations of ridges are not closely linked to mantle convection cells Class 7 Know the of the meaning of geotherm solidus temperature at which a rock starts to melt and liquidus temperature at which a rock is completely molten be able to sketch them on a plot of temperature versus depth Class 7 Explain decompressional melting perhaps with the aid of a diagram showing a mantle geotherm and the solidus Class 7 Labeled section through an ophiolites with a brief description of rock characteristics Class 7 slide 20 RHS and Exercise 7 Labeled sketch the basic structure of a midocean ridge Class 7 slide 10 Know what minerals olivine orthopyroxene clinopyroxene plagioclase and rock types basalt gabbro peridotite harzburgite amp lherzolite dunite are found in the ocean crust and mantle Class 7 and Lab 7 Be able to describe basic features of igneous rocks found in the oceans Know the definition of seismic impedance product of density and velocity is and how it controls the amplitude of seismic re ections amplitude of re ection relative to incoming wave is change in impedance divided by sum of impedances Class 8 slide 4 Know how seismic re ection data is collected airgun and streamer geometry and processed sorting into common midpoints applying normal moveout stacking plotting as a record section Class 8 Be able to interpret re ection profiles collected on midocean ridges in terms of oceanic crustal structure Lab 8 OceanESS 410 Here is a list of topics that might come up on the Final it covers only the 2quot 1 half of the class List differences between fast and slow spreading ridges Explain their causes Class 10 compare slides 6 and 17 Characteristics of segmentation and fast and slow spreading ridges Class 10 slides 27 40 and Lab 10 Describe with label sketches the 3 basic fault types Class 11 slide 3 and the de nitions of fault strike dip and rake slide 4 Explain the physical concepts underlying Pwave first motion focal mechanisms Class 11 slide 6 Explain the ambiguity in a focal mechanism solution slide 7 Plotting compressional and dilatational ray takeoff directions and two orthogonal fault planes using a stereographic projection Class 11 and Lab 11 Reading approximate fault strikes and dips from beach ball plots and interpreting the fault type normal reversethrust strikeslip Class 11 and Lab 12 Interpreting focal mechanisms in terms of plate boundary processes Lab 12 Draw a labeled diagram showing the major processes in an oceancontinent subduction zones earthquakes shallow and deep dehydration melting volcanism volcanic arcs Class 12 slide 78 Describe the subduction zone processes that lead to growth of continents listed in Class 12 slide 4 and explained elsewhere in Class 12 What is the Wilson cycle Class 12 slides 917 What are the two forces acting on a slab Explain why theoretical considerations predict that the slow convergence of old oceanic plate will lead to a steep subduction angle Class 12 slides 1820 Explain with the aid of a sketch the concept of back arc spreading Class 12 slides 23 25 and why slow subduction of old plate favors back arc extension slide 23 What is the definition of CI Class 13 slide 3 You can manipulate the equation on that slide to show that D 241 mm so you should be able to derive the grain size without the table Describe the concept of settling velocity What two forces are balanced Class 13 slides lll2 I will not expect you to remember the equation for settling velocity on OceanESS 410 slide 12 but I will expect you to remember and understand what the symbols stand for eg R v and to be able to use the equation to estimate a settling velocity ifit is given to you in a question What are the limitations of the theoretical Stokes settling velocity slide 13 What are the three regions of the bottom boundary layer Class 13 slide 15 Why is it not practical to use the equations for the inner region to obtain the bottom shear stress slide 17 Estimate the bottom shear stress given at least two measurements of mean uid velocities a different depths off the sea oor ie remember to plot ln 2 versus the u take the slope and estimate u given that the and then get the stress from Class 13 slide 21 and Lab 13 I expect you to remember all the equations you need for this process How to use the Shields curves to determine if sediments will move and how to determine ifthe transport will be as a suspension or bedload Class 13 slides 2325 and Lab 13 I will not expect you to remember the expressions for the Shield stress and partical Reynolds numbers but you need to know what all the symbols stand for Interpret an Xradiograph identifying regions of ne and coarse grained material zones of bioturbation crossand parallel bedding Lab 14 Draw a labeled crosssection of the sea oor at a continental margin showing the location and definition of the continental shelf slope and rise and the abyssal plain Class 15 slide 4 Know how sediments are mobilized on the continental shelf Class 15 slides 811 Explain the concept ofwave base Class 15 slide 9 Explain why muds are deposited in the midshelf off the coast of Washington What processes prevent deposition on the inner and outer shelf Lab 15 Explain brie y in how 210Pb dating works I do not expect you to remember any of the equations so an answer in words could get full marks What is meant by supported and unsupported 210Pb Class 15 slides 1523 Know to get a sedimentation rate from measurements of 210Pb activity at different depths in recent sediments Class 15 slide 23 and Lab 15 Describe the concept of accommodation space and its application to sequence stratigraphy Class 16 slide 5 What processes other than sedimentation lead to changes in the accommodation space slides 7 and 1011 Describe the concept and causes of eustacy Class 16 slides 1011 OceanESS 410 Draw a diagram to illustrate the difference between a prograding and aggrading clinoforms Class 16 slide 13 and explain how they relate to changes in sea level Class 16 and Lab 16 Describe brie y how the pattern of sediment deposition on a margin varies over a eustatic cycle ie 39 39 39 J g i u l w tand 39 Class 16 slides 1419 and Lab 16 Interpret a crosssection of sediment layers in terms of sealevel changes Lab 16 Draw a cross section of a turbidite ow showing uid ow directions the location of erosion and deposition Class 17 slide 10 and Lab 14 demo Draw a crosssection through a classical turbidite deposit Class 17 slide 13 and Lab 14 How do the turbidity currents and debris ows differ Class 17 slide 6 Explain the role of submarine canyons in transporting sediments to the deep ocean Do they play a larger role during glacial highstands on interglacial periods Lab 17 Describe how sediments have been used to understand megathrust earthquakes in the Paci c Northwest Class 17 slides 1624 List and de ne the different kinds of deep sea sediments terrigenous biogenic hydrogenous cosmogenic Class 18 slide 6 What controls the of biogenic and redbrown clay sediments in the deep oceans Class Explain the concept of the carbonate compensation depth Class 18 slides 2225