Lecture 2 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology
Lecture 2 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology APK3110c
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Adams on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to APK3110c at Florida State University taught by Dr. Robert Moffatt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 266 views.
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Lecture 2 Notes Exercise Physiology 83115 What s available right away AT P CP 39 Fuel can be available under extreme immediate conditions can be exhausted in a few minutes 39 The glycogen stored in the muscle will be used in the muscle can be depleted b c the glycogen is going to only be used in the muscle can t be taken anywhere else in the body Glycolysis 39 Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell 1 mol 6C degraded until we have 2 3C molecules 39 in the two reactions NADNADH is a transporter in the ETC used in oxidation acceptors reduction donors reactions this is what happens when we have proficiencies of oxygen when oxygen is abundant different events occur 39 Almost all steps are reversible Carbohydrate Metabolism Glycolysis breaking down glucose can get it from glycogen stores We can also get glucose from the blood but only in AEROBlC conditions NOT under ANAEROBlC conditions doesn t happen quickly don t normally depend on blood as a source of fuel so NOT immediate 39 importance of glycogen stores in the muscle 0 If you run out of glycogen stores before you are able to do anything then you have ran out of energl and you are exhausted o Lactic Acid changes the PH 9 cell usually functions under a ne range PH and if you disrupt that range cell doesn t work as ef ciently I Lactic Acid coupled with running out glucose fuel 9 you will start to walk NO longer at an intense pace Tremendous benefits from the glycolytic process when oxygen is available 0 3 ATP from Anaerobic Glycolysis don t have to have oxygen to get ATP through the process but because of this there is a little bit of lag time in terms of minutes biochemical and circulatory takes time to get through the whole process 39 An interesting thing about Aerobic glycolysis is that pyruvate doesn t produce lactic acid 0 Pyruvate will go into the mitochondrial membrane 0 Couple events occur 1 Remove a carbon consume oxygen to give off carbon dioxide photosynthetic process and that s where the carbon goes Acetate with coenzyme A to produce Acetyl CoA so the 3C pyruvate is converted to a 2C acetate which couples with coenzyme A to form Acetyl CoA 39 Krebs Cycle Acetic Acid CyclePCA Cycle 0 You take the 2C molecule and chemically attach it to a 46 molecule 0AA to make a 6C molecule citric acid9 high energy state O 0 Lecture 2 Mates Exercise Physiology 83115 in the Krebs cycle we will take the 6C compound reconfigure it pull some electrons off cut off carbons until we end up with 0AA or a 4C compound Beginning of Krebs take Acetyl CoA and couple it with citric acid Alphaaketoglutarate is no longer a 6C molecule its now a 5G molecule which means that we have removed 1C and that C is let off as C02 NAD then comes in and takes off another electron and AK G is oxidized to Succinate Acid 4C compound once again we removed a C last C we will remove When you break off the last C we get a release of energy in the form of 1 GTP that is the same as ATP energy that we can use to contract muscles Bevitamins involves in creating energy 9 FAD Riboflavin NAD Niocin For every 6C compound G6P we get 2 ATP from the Krebs cycle compared to glycolysis starting with glycogen gets us 3 ATP Electron Transport Chain System Respiratory Chain how we produce energy in the mitochondria each electrons is transported to the ETC 0 Need oxygen for this to effectively work 0 Ex Like a waterfall You can watch the beauty of the waterfall and it FAD 2 ATP NAD 3 ATP looks great but that s all it is But if you figure out a way to fUnnel water through a channel something like a tube and if something inside the tube rotates and churns the water you can generate power electricity So when the water falls over the waterfall and if you harness it properly you will generate energy This is essentially what is happening here You take the electrons and you take it to the top of the falls and it falls over and goes through specific chemical channels that release energy to form ATP Krebs 30 ATP Aerobic ll Glycolysis f 9 ATP 39 ATP FAD comes in a little later and misses the first set of reactions This is why it produces less ATP The electrons transferred by NADH when oxygen is available no longer oxidizes pyruvate with lactate These electrons are taken into the mitochondria and they too will produce 6 more ATP Lecture 2 Notes Exercise Physiiol cgy 83115 P9 Ua39fe 5C 1 gmp r NAD N A ETC NA DH 0 2y 7 ARON oH ric NAB 0 ETCquot 514 PM i c Aquot i 1 Icoci m Acid Ho nTP f NA D 1 E r c K QNADH 0AA ZATP FAD f 4W39suwnw Acid MW lg aL Kef39balul39araj39e 7 C 50 2 1 r e l L gt ATP Jr 3 V201 ATP 1 H LD m Triglyceride FA cm 439 FA Cacti J L aw Jr 4quot HDH Q lEE 1 NA D i 1 4a NADH 9E g cm 9 H man an Acciyl coA 2c Total 12 Krebs 5 Beta oxidation 2 17 ATP CCIl snm CCID a Hmong M39P Lecture 2 Notes Exercise Physiology 83115 FAs come in all different lengths 4C 1 8C etc and these FA will chemically couple with glycerol to form a triglyceride There are times when we can only form a monoglyceride 1 FA or a diglyceride 2 FA Consume fat in the form of triglycerides digest them absorbed from the small intestine into the intestinal membrane where we reassembled them as triglycerides and then we take them into the body where they are transported in the form of chylomicrons then eventually used for energy or stored in the form of triglycerol for later use in adipocytes The conditions have to be perfect for fat to be used as an energy source Fats do supply energy as quickly or as well as glucose there is going to be a lag time chemical and circulatory you ve got the first trigger of releasing the fat by activating the enzyme lipase to tell the adipocyte to break down these fats triglyceride diglyeride release of the FA FA is then transported through the blood to the cells doing the work taken up into the cell by a series of chemical reactions taken into the mitochondria where oxygen has to be available FA CANNOT be used under ANAEROBlC CONDITlONS Once you get it into the mitochondria it goes through a series ofchemical reactions beta oxidation fatty acid oxidation like glycolysis Glycolysis degrades glucose from a highenergy state to a low energy state Fatty Acid synthesis is pretty much the same a By taking this activated FA 16C and taking it through these reactions removing the electrons 9 Already reduced the potential for 5 ATP C16 becomes a C14 cleaved off two C The C2 that is cleaved off is called acetate couples with coenzyme A making Acetyl CoA 0 So this is what happens when 2 C are cleaved off C169C14 plus acetate 39 17 ATP from taking C16 and removing 21 C 0 When starting with C16 cleaved off 2 C the C114 goes back through again starts over again yielding another 17 ATP etc keeps going for a total of about 145 ATP Takes a while to trigger the whole process to use fat as a fuel you re probably looking at minimally 15 minutes and the conditions have to be perfect Lecture 2 Notes Exercise Physiology 83115 What conditions may inhibit fat from being an important source of energy Takes time 2 Oxygen has to be available in proper amounts 3 Intensity of ones effort the more intense the effort that more the body will depend on PA as a substrate the more intense the effort the more lactate you produce lactic acid inhibits the mobilization of FA synthesis 39 individuals use FA up to 50 of maximal oxygen consumption amount of oxygen you consume when you are preforming work for an extended amount of time9 gets less the more intense you get intensity plays a role in addition to duration 39 At heavy intensities the body will NOT use fat you will burn calories COMPARISON BETWEEN CARBOHYDRATES AND FATS GHQ V W FAT 7 7 7 quot0 D lFFERENCE Per carbon atom r ATP 82 ATP 30 greater in fat 7 Per unit weight if ltcal 7 9 lgcal 2x greater in fatm 1 Total stores Limited Abundant amount 7 a 7 7 ATP per unit of l 6 moles 02 26 moles 02 CHO 12 more 02 consumed 3 38 or 39 ATP 3 147 ATP efficient when we 3 are based on limited 7 amounts of QZ 39 Protein can provide energy but it really isn t really used as an energy source b c it is very expensive to use and replace 9 will be used under extreme conditions such as starvation So usually when we talk about substrates we talk about carbohydrates and fat 0 FAT is the better fuel You begin to do more energy when you start to use fat as a fuel When you train the body aerobically your body shifts to using fat as much as it can under the natural conditions 0 Fats burn in a carbohydrates flamequot so carbs are necessary to produce the reducing equivalents that we find necessary to go through the Krebs cycle As long as we have the carbohydrates then we can burn the fat If you run out of those reducing equivalents then you burn less fat 0 The amount of fat you have grossly outweighs the amount of carbohydrates you have in the body even in the skinniest and leanest people 39 When we are dependent on limited amount of oxygen ClID are more efficient o This would be important during endurance because when you are doing endurance type activities you are depending more on oxygen consumption Lecture 2 Notes Exercise Physiology 83115 0 When you are working at your max levels oxygen is limited so you would rather use a fuel that is using the least amount of oxygen possible 9 CHO 39 Respiratory Quotient RQ VCOZ V02 Volume C02 producedVolume OZ consumed V norm 2 070 RQCI lO 100 l3rotein isn t used as a respiratory fuel When you preform work you consume oxygen especially in endurance worli And the process that s doing the work transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy you produce i002 39 RQ tells you how intense the exercise is because of how much C02 is produced Because the more intense the exercise the more C102 you produce Even though the more intense the exercise the more 02 you will consume So we can measure this in the body lay putting sensors on the cell to measure how much 02 is coming out and how much 02 is going in We can do that but we usually don t Respiratory Exchange Ratio RER or R measure gases that you inhale or exhale from the lungs collect those gases in bagsballoons and run them through an analyzer that tells us exactly how much 02 you consumed and how much C02 has been produced 0 lust as accurate as going into the cell 0 When you are operating at 50 your body is using some mixture of CH0 and Fats 139 But the more intense the effort the more ofa contributor CHO becomes and the less of a contributor FAT becomes 39 if you intend to burn fat you need to do it with consideration of mobilizing fat and intensity needs to be there as well