MAR GEOL AND GEOPHY
MAR GEOL AND GEOPHY ESS 410
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Jeanette Keebler on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESS 410 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/192670/ess-410-university-of-washington in Earth And Space Sciences at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
OCEANE88 410 Plate Tectonics Class 1 Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics William Wilcock Fall 2006 m mags 3 M m rum means unpurManiie mm 39 5mm 2qu km izicu39ci Planetary Differentiation d laugicma w fun 1 i3 392 9quot mu m 145mm om crusl MIdech In pl lllllk39S Heat Convection Heating From Below The Earth as a Heat Engine oonvegt39 nltor advection Heat generated by 1 Radioactivity U Th K isotopes 2 Solidification of Inner Core e in a liquid or a It is a ve Heat Lost from the Earth by emciemmeans 1 Mantle Convection Loegfnsport Upwelling Plume 1 i Hi i l l A simplistic model of mantle convection and plate tectonics Convectioninthe Earth39s 39 mantle is You will commonly 4 In a slm Ie manner see man e quotve quot quot dep39ded V lived radioactive 39 39 39 topes of similar to this gure ume P p tassium uranium Broad Region of and thorium and not Diffuse Upwening The pattern of convection for internal heating is different from bottom heating 9 This depiction is at Downwellin midocean ridges NR1 Many Aspects Mantle Convection in the Earth are Still Incompleter Understood volcanlc lsland Chaln ocean cmgt mldrocean ndge Tectonic Plates OCEANESS 410 Class 3 Mapping TopographyBathymetry Fall 2007 Geodetic Surveys Historical Measure distance between two points astronomical techniques Measure directions to athird point from the first two and then use triangulation geometry to get its position Measure additional angles to get elevation change Repeat triangulation process GPS Modern Geodesy Triangulate using relative time of travel from at least four satellites whose location is known See the GPS tutorial on the trimble web site to learn more httpwwwtrimhle quot idexshtml Satellite Altimetry EchoSounding Use radio waves from a satellite or sound waves from a ship to measure the vertical two way travel time up amp down to the surfacesea oor and convert this to distance distance speed x time 0 7 mm WWW mun g wnsnwoa W 4 E 0 mum memes ELLIPSOlD Multibeam echo sounding Swath Mapping Send sound waves from a ship in multiple directions to measure the two way travel time to to different location It would take 100 s of ship years to map the whole ocean oor with multibeam systems Calculating Bathymetry from Satellite Altimetry Measurements of the Position of the Surface ofthe Ocean Geoid The hypothetical surface of the earth that coincides everywhere with mean sea level Is the Geoid surface of the ocean deflected up or down above a Seamount It is de ected up We will explain why in class Scientists can use the short wavelength bumps and dips in the geoid to infer the bathymetry of the seafloor This is how the global seafloor maps we are using were made To learn more look at EXPLORING THE OCEAN BASINS WITH SATELLITE ALTIMETER DATA by David T Sandwell Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Walter H F Smith Geosciences Laboratory NOAA ht ln39lAAAwv nndr nnaa 39 quot vpreu39i ctedexploreHTMLsat alt OCEANESS 410 Fall 2006 Exercise 13 Sediment Stratigraphy Due in class Thursday November 30 Q l T l l l l lOBhrs TENS 6X18hrs slow cycle rapd cycle superimposed cycles Q 5 H l Eusfa c sea level mm 200 400 Time hrs The gure above shows the eustatic sea level for a model run in the Jurassic Tank an experimental sedimentation tank For this experiment the supply of coarse light and fine dark sediment was kept constant as was the rate of subsidence of the tank oor The attached gure shows a vertical section through the sediments deposited Identify label the sedimentary units on the section that corresponds the numbers 18 above Explain your choices