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by: Miss Declan O'Hara


Miss Declan O'Hara
GPA 3.77

James Caporaso

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James Caporaso
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Declan O'Hara on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL S 203 at University of Washington taught by James Caporaso in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/192685/pol-s-203-university-of-washington in Political Science at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 09/09/15
Week 5 J 38 5 3 d 339 8 10 11 Civilizations cultures writ large the largest cultural group below human beings larger than clans or nations but smaller than humanity Close relationship to nationalism but not necessarily territorially based to fit into nationstate model Nations on smaller scale 200 and rising Nations aspire statehood sovereign independence civilizations don t Sinic civilizations Confucian values China Chinese communities of South East Asia and Taiwan Hindu civilizations defined mostly by religion and way of life India Nepal the only Hindu Kingdom in the world and parts of Sri Lanka Orthodox civilizations centered in Russia but also parts of Eastern Europe Serbia Japanese civilizations a civilization limited to one country Japan not for export Western civilizations Western Europe North America Not Mexico and British CW Australia New Zealand Islamic civilizations Most Middle East North Africa and into the subcontinent of Asia Pakistan Bangladesh Indonesia LatinAmerican civilizations separate from Western Spanish and Portuguese influences assimilates Indians Fault line wars a Civilizations paradigm predicts more wars between civilizations than within b Civilizations don t perfectly fit with nationstates the focus can t be just on interstate wars c Wars in former Yugoslavia may be the way of the future Serb orthodox against Bosnia Muslim Russia s orthodox war against Chechnya Islamic China against Taiwan Afghan against Soviet Union I uqu Iand lute Iwars Itu Iwars are wars within a civilizational groupthat is a larger form of identity under humanity Intercivilizational wars are across civilizations Huntington makes the prediction that war is usually inter not intra The West against the Rest Caricature example internal variety within Western civilizations The EU Germany and France use the USA as quotthe other to construct their own identity USA is an example of what Europe is not May occur between Western and Islamic dyads A civilizational idea that was a result of WWII It is included in Huntington s argument that civilizations have emerged and the West is its own civilization and the rest are fighting against it 12 Big Mac vs Magna Carta concept that though countries may have quotWesternquot items doesn t imply that they are Western or share democratic ideas These ideas would be present in institutions and involve documents like the Magna Carta The Big Mac is Americanization vs the democratic ideas and freedoms inscribed by the Magna Carta Huntington claims that quotthe restquot associates the West more with the Big Mac than with the Magna Carta a Magna Carta King John 1215 provides guaranteed set of fundamental rights to aristocrats that limits the monarch Big Mac McDonald s Western quotculturequot people enjoy western culture but don t want to go along with the laws enforced by Magna Carta Example quotAsian Values 13 Islamic states and Islamic Societies Russet s argument about the clash growing clash between Western and Islamic dyads slightly more likely to fight one another The fact that Israel is fighting with Islamic states there is less of a conflict Islamic states are states run on Islamic principles often by clerics Eg Saudi Arabia Islamic societies are large Islam populations that are not governed by Islamic principle Eg Indonesia This part of Huntington s theory that Islam is rising demographically which might lead to conflict 14 Globalization and Globalism the integration of states through increasing contact communications and trade as well as increased global awareness of such integration Week 6 1 Democracy a i limited government 1 llno one individual can get away with too muchquot 2 Checks and Balances 3 United Kingdom 9 Parliament Parliament makes any law checks and balances of UK s Parliament 9 a Vote of node confidence b Regular elections c The Press medianews ii separation of church from state 1 First Amendment 2 ReligiousCultural Power are separate from politics Huntington iii separation of economy and polity 1 llnobody can be better off without somebody being worse off 2 Free trade 9Preido 9 Utility Function b Government is accountable to the people chief mechanism is voting rule of law no divine right checks and balances geographical distribution A form of government in which power is held directly or indirectly by citizens under a free electoral system All member of the society citizens enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties 2 Markets systems of exchange stops when no one can get better off without making someone else worse off Main element of Democratic Peace Theory a Economic Interdependence b Commercial Liberalism Adam Smith c Liberal development of markets is essential to peace 3 Efficiency markets must operate efficiently for greater interdependence and peace corruption kills efficiency a Commercial Liberalism Adam Smith b Comparative Advantage Integration countries should focus on what they are good at producing instead of on new products This induces trade amongst states 4 Limited governmentpower corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely so governments need to have checks a constitution and people who rule are accountable for actions A government outline where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is not usually allowed by law usually a written Constitution It is closely related to libertarianism classical liberalism and some tendencies of conservatism in the United States It is a common practice of Western culture 3 Democratic dyads A direct relationship between two democratic states that do not fight one another The democracies do not go to war with each other Mearschimer presents a realist counterargument that democracies have been few in number over the past two centuries and thus there have been few opportunities where democracies were in a position to fight one another Main element of Liberalism a Relationship between two states b Democratic peace c Analysis Democratic Peace Theory d Alternative Dyads more likely to have conflict 2 United Nations creates in 1945 best known global organization important IGO because of universal membership composed of securitycouncil general assembly and economic and social council An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law international security economic development social progress human rights and achieving world peace The UN was founded in 1945 after WWII to replace the League of Nations to stop wars between countries and to provide a platform for dialogue 1 UN Security CouncilCouncil filled with victors of WWII Bipolarity works against collective security when the poles in power are an aggressor Function Deterrence llAll for on and one for all 39 39 DC is 39 gg 39 if the security council says so Composed of five permanent members US Russia Mainland China France and Britain and ten nonpermanent members for twoyear terms One of the principal organs of the United Nations charged with maintenance of international peace and security ts powers outlined in the of 39 39 39 the United Nations charter include the U r establishment of international sanctions and the authorization of military action ts powers are exercised through United Nations Security Council Resolutions 339 UN General AssemblyTown hall meeting structure One of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation ts powers are to oversee the budget of the United Nations appoint the nonpermanent members to the Security Council receive reports from other parts of the United Nations and make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions It has also established a wide number of subsidiary organs 8 Collective Security a security regime agreed upon by great powers that set rules for keeping peace guided by the principle that an act of aggression by any states will be met by a collective response from the rest Former seeks to keep peace or quotwinquot against aggressors introduce diplomacy There s a lot of treachery uncertainty don t really know who is on your side Peacekeepers no war fighting capacity Purpose Separate warring parties and try to enforce negotiations Weaknesses Budget is very small and they must be invited by the host nation in order to work 10 Peace Keeping the efforts by third parties such as the UN to intervene in civil wars andor interstate wars to prevent hostilities between potential belligerents from escalating so that by acting as a buffer a negotiated settlement of the dispute can be reached 11 The Zone of Peace a Inner Core Strong Democracies perhaps 1215 Switzerland Canada USUK Denmark Norway Sweden Australia New Zealand 57 Outer Core Rest of OECD world Italy Spain Portugal Japan Greece Squot Emerging Democracies Brazil Argentina Chile South Korea Mexico Costa Rica Philippines Taiwan India d Newest quotTransitionalquot Countries Which may or may not end up as democracies Eastern Europe Hungary Poland Czech Republic Croatia Baltic states e Stable entrenched democracies that don t fight one another Different countries have different levels of economic intervention and structure their checks and balances differently but serve the same function A declaration signed by the Foreign Ministers of the ASEAN member states Indonesia Malaysia the Philippines Singapore and Thailand on November 27th 1971 in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia In the declaration the parties publicly stated their intent to keep South East Asia quotfree from any form or manner of interference by outside Powers and quotbroaden the areas of cooperation 12 Interdependence when a statedemocracy is highly economically integrated with another state economic ties and dependencies exchanges occur in markets should operate efficiently A situation in which the behavior of international actors greatly affects others with whom they have contact making all parties mutually sensitive and vulnerable to others actions The more economically stable you are The more you are inclined to be more democratic 13 quotaudience costsquot in democracies if the leaders don t do what people want then they are voted out serves as a check on power of leaders as a threat to remove them from power won t see a check on executives in autocratic countries The downfalls for countries that do not intervene in a war There is a difference in terms ofcredibility that a leader can make based on the system of government Democratic vs Authoritarian states US vs N Korea in a democratic state the people s opinion matters but in an authoritarian state you need not care about what your people are thinking This is a response to polity credibility and the value in analyzing policy statements and credibility IranDPRK 14 The Kantian Triangle a three components to promote peace 39 Democracy audience cost democratic peace theory Institutional organizations iquot Economic interdependence greater market access equals greater level of interdependence and then greater chance of peace Tariffs are lower amongst trade between democratic states Week 7 1 From quotisquot to oughtquot This is our world and we shouldn t focus on what it oughtquot to be Realist focus on what it isquot a David Hume it is logically impossible to move from if this is xquot I will move to yquot Discusses a fallacy in logic b Division between Realism and Liberalism i Realist quotisquot ii Liberalist oughtquot c Critique Realist say we should look at how the world isquot and not how it oughtquot to be 2 International institutions Big meeting where everyone can meet up and say what they want to say Socializes members makes preferences transparent reduces uncertainty a United Nations promote cooperation b The Kantian triangle preservation of Peace Functions by way of International Institutions c Examples The League of Nations Wilson d Definition global rules of the game different from organizations not actors they structure what actors do and how they work international law treaties rights and collective security 3 Prisoner s Dilemma game 4 The value of reputation a Liberalisminterdependence b Greece defaulting on debt people would remember and wouldn t be as willing to help them in the future c Increases reputation leads to stability norms d Prisoner s dilemma 5 Jus in Bella vs Jus ad Bellum a Jus ad Bellum just war theorytradition b Jus in Bello law of war itself c The Battle of Agincourt British and French war 1415 where English capture French soldiers and were afraid of a counter attack by the French since they had smaller numbers Henry V issued an order to kill the French soldiers that had been captured because he feared that they would attack the English soldiers after the counterattack freed them Prisoners were to be kept alive once captured or by surrendering but Henry V felt threatened which made him order his men to kill the captured soldiers his men refused Henry V has the archers kill the prisoners instead since they were not bound to the code of chivalry as his men were 6 The Red Cross a Henry Dunant witnessed a battle between France and Austria and noticed that many people were suffering and there was only one doctor to tend to those people on each side of the battle field So he advocated for medics and health concerns It took five years and the government s military disagreed with this because they wanted to kill as many men as possible so the battles would end quicker without priest and medics 7 P 7 runs INGOsv m 57 running around healing people This successfully went through as part of the 1st Geneva Convention Based in Geneva Individuals working in medicine should be protected during war don t shoot the doctors this was agreed upon by both parties Human rights prisoner care Normsvalues Significance Liberalism INGO developed shared norms showed that cooperation is possible amongst states s IGOS Definition element of civil society mediate between civil society and civilization i Red Cross ii Amnesty International Liberalism 39 Play a huge role in international politics Norms iquot Crossnational connections llshared values


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