Black Studies 6 notes bundle
Black Studies 6 notes bundle
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Black Studies 6 Civil Rights Movement 6814 135 PM Office hours Wednesday 10am 12pm South Hall 4431 P Email mgaiciajrgmaicom 31 March 2014 1787 US Constitution was adopted US became a country 9 Civil Rights struggles began Constitutional Law dictates whether we have rights or not ie Dred Scott black people have no rights Dialectical Struggle historical parameters around which the black people have struggled 9 nationalism and constitutionalism The term integration demeans what they were struggling for they wanted constitutional rights basic rights Right now we are leaning towards constitutionalism Barack Obama is president In essence race and racism are the forces that keep the working class from uniting unable to organize black labor force and white labor force 2 April 2014 Earl Warren Chief Justice of US Supreme Court Constitutionalists if the black people can get the State on their side they can have their freedom and equal rights Confederation a loose connection of independent nation states who come together for their own mutual interest but do not give up their individual sovereignty ie United Nations United States is the most powerful empire in the history of the world because we have something no one else has ever had Global Reach we can blow you up if you disagree with us 4 April 2014 Mi freedom and democracy The United States is a federal republic not a democracy Formula for democracy 50 1 Claim our Founding Fathers created a new form of government called federalism a way to break sovereignty Federalism we are divided between the national political authority on one hand and the various state political authorities on the other hand Ie police powers are reserved for the state California can run its police in any way it wants and Alabama can run its police any way it wants Nowhere in the Constitution is education mentioned so education is reserved for the state Anything that is not specifically given to the national government is given to the state government The United States is also a republic a representative form of government You choose someone who makes the decisions Indentured servants a contract that says people sell a portion of their labor for a period of time and when the time is up they will be given land starter crops etc to start their own lives the indentured servants tended to be white Mgh the United States comes into existence on the back of people who were seeking freedom and democracy Your incentive is to get labor and land so you can make a profit not to get freedom and democracy The United States is a colony based on the massive exploitation of slave labor After the indentured servants are freed or live out their contracts you need another labor source the Caribbean The slaves become a threat to your wife children bring in slaves that are seasoned domesticated they will be less rebellious It is much better to have slaves who are domesticated from birth slaves that are born on your plantation the world and universe is dictated by your owners 9 everything you know is right you don t know any different The indentured servant system foundation of American society begins to break down People begin to realize that life is not what they imagined ie Streets are not paved with gold etc You are creating a potential source for rebellion by giving them weapons etc when you release them You start to make a labor force of slaves from the Caribbean Advantage of having population made up of Africans slavery became identified with race you can tell just by looking at them Problem logically the slaves should unite in coalition with the indentured servants how do you solve the problem You invent racism based on the myth of white supremacy successfully divides the working class along color lines Racism is still the most functional institution in society o Ie DeSean Jackson has gang ties white people don39t have gang ties On TV now plethora of poor white trash Honey BooBoo these people exist to convince people how you should not behave 9 they behave like black people Civil War 300000 white people died to protect the institution that they had no stake in they had no slaves anyway 9 if black people became free the white people no longer had the upper hand or advantage Black Studies 6 Civil Rights Movement 6814 135 PM 7 April 2014 What is happening in the world at the turn of the 18 centurybeginning of 19 century 9 Industrial Revolution is changing the basic nature of human society What comes out of the Industrial Revolution the scientific revolution machines etc Textile is the first industry cloth cotton Moving into the Industrial age what do you need 9 raw materials Raw materials become absolutely necessary how do you get raw materials 9 workers you need the labor to be in the colonies why do you suppress the slave trade 9 you need the labor where you are but the slave trade is moving the labor to the Americas At some point the relationship we had with England had come to a point where we want to separate We hold these truths to be sef evident not debatable that all men are created equal 9 a shot at the King because he does not see anyone as on his level Unalienable rights you can39t take them away And that among these are life liberty and the pursuit of property initially it said this The Declaration of Independence is not legally binding 9 it39s a declaration of war Our Founding Fathers were not stupid they knew that when they sent the declaration of independence that war was inevitable 9 they needed an army You cant get an army by using the word property in the declaration if most people in the area at that time were property 9 Benjamin Franklin said we can39t use the word property Why did we win the Revolutionary War our advantage was the French Articles of Confederation was a problem we have 13 independent nation states that act like independent nation states 9 they did their own thing not united Preamble of the Constitution We the People they are the elites but from their standpoint they are the people In order to form a more perfect union how can perfect be made more perfect 9 they39re rationalizing throwing out the government Establish justice what do they mean by justice 9 everyone doing what he s supposed to do when he s supposed to do it everything behaving in the way in which it is supposed to behave 9 they want to put the system together in a coherent manner in which everything is working as its supposed to be working Ensure domestic tranquility prevent revolution within the country Provide for the common defense prevent any power from outside from taking over Promote the general welfare and ensure liberty to ourselves and our posterity the elite families Section Notes 8 April 2014 1787 When Professor Madison says that Civil Rights starts Civil Rights from an epistemological standpoint study of knowledge traces knowledge 1787 was the root of the Civil Rights movement 9 thus epistemologically speaking we can39t discuss Civil Rights until we have citizenship Who was a citizen WASP white Ango Saxon protestant males Women39s rights were limited to the husband39s rights Tier 1 WASPs Tier 2 indentured servants 57 years of labor in exchange for transport from Europe and in order to get them acclimated into this new world some were kidnapped prisoners people of different ethnic backgrounds that were seen as lower class problem with indentured servants if they escape into society you cant tell them apart from other people Tier 3 everyone else Tier 4 blacks they are under the class system because they had no rights or citizenships 35 compromise they were not even considered a whole individual Founding Fathers the key players 39 Benjamin Franklin 7 Both slave owners wealthy businessmen Thomas Jefferson Ben Franklin a little more liberal changed the pursuit of property wording Property vs happiness 9 we can39t found our country and use principles that we basically ran from Thomas Jefferson would have vetoed the convention to make the Constitution so they sent him to France Ambassador to France TJ was in communication with Patrick Henry Plato39s Republic Gold ruling class Silver military Bronze working class As long as you have this structure in place there is a balance 9 working class supports military who in turn protects the ruling class Issue what happens if silver decides to be gold 9 when military rules 9 empire state 9 war Preamble Why did we write the Preamble 9 criticizing England and saying we were good there but we39re going to be perfect here Property vs Happiness Materials happiness Happiness satisfaction Thus materials bring satisfaction in the form of happiness 9 April 2014 The primary reason for chunking down the Articles of Confederation and replacing it with the Constitution was to correct the structural barriers that the Articles of Confederation put on the business of slavery Plato if the worker39s ruled we would have democracy the second worst form of government 0 If the military ruled it would be constant war Only 13 of the senate is up for election If democracy broke out it would be checked 9 checks and balances 11 April 2014 Our Founding Fathers were creating a nation state no longer a confederacy From the standpoint of our Founding Fathers the legislative branch was the one they were the most worried about they were worried it would have the most political significance 9 they split it up so the part of the Legislative branch that would represent the population as a whole was weak How a law works a bill can be proposed by any senator or person in the House 9 it is given to a committee 9 if its passed by the committee it is moved on to the House 9 if the House votes in favor of the bill 9 it moves on to the Senate 9 if it passes the Senate it has to go to the President of the United States to be signed 9 the President can either a sign it b veto it or c do nothing If the President vetoes the bill it goes back to the Senate and Congress can override the veto by a 23 vote 9 if the Congress overrides the veto it is a law if the President initially signs it it is a law If these people are upset by the law they can take it to court 0 The Supreme Court can either say it is constitutional or unconstitutional This is a process of checks and balances 9 the purpose of checks and balances in terms of the Senate and the House is that the elites could have a check on democracy if it were to accidentally break out 23 of the Senate is always stable only 13 comes up for election every cycle Initially the primary purpose of the president was supposed to have a check on the outbreak of democracy Two major activists Alexander Hamilton and James Madison 9 they were battling over the wording of the Constitution Marbury Justice of the Peace Supreme Court case Marbury vs Madison Single most important Supreme court case in the history of the US John Marshall Chief Justice of Supreme Court when this case comes up Marbury comes to the US Supreme Court and says that he wants his credentials he wants them to be signed so he can be Justice of Peace 9 the Jefferson administration denied him credentials The Supreme Court could have said too bad or give him his credentials What John Marshall said was this we can not decide this case 9 this means that the Supreme Court is taking a huge step back 0 Then he says the reason that we can not decide this case is because the constitution gives the Supreme Court only a pennant jurisdiction a case can only be decided by the supreme court after it has matriculated from lower courts up The Supreme Court only gives a final decision democracy is now finished Black Studies 6 Civil Rights Movement 6814 135 PM 14 April 2014 Representation in the House is based on population the state which has the largest number of members in the House is the state with the largest population 9 35 Compromise so that the representation of Virginia would not be overwhelmed they counted slaves as 35 of a person 9 this elevates the representational numbers for states like Virginia Constitution Article 1 Section 9 Clause 1 You cannot end the slave trade in the US until 1808 Article 4 Section 2 Clause 3 Fugitive Slave Clause required a slave who flees to another state to be returned to the owner in the state from which they fled Article 5 Allows for the amendment of the Constitution 9 2 ways 1 by convention or 2 when 23 of both Houses of Congress deem it necessary You can amend the Constitution for any purpose you can imagine except two things o You can39t amend the Constitution to end the slave trade prior to 1808 o You can39t amend the Constitution to prevent the fundamental check of each state having two Senators The Era of Jacksonian Democracy the era in which the majority of the white male population got the right to fully participate in this country A nation is identified by its boundaries etc Section Notes 15 April 2014 Howard Zinn A People39s History These prominent historical figures began to represent places that they were not Christopher Columbus represents death he single handedly wiped out 90 of the native people on the land that he thought he discovered Checks and Balances Got rid of confederation then created a nation state According to Professor Madison how does he define nation and state Nation homogenous population that shares a common language culture etc State the government Created a system designed to protect their economic interest 9 primarily to protect the slave trade from going extinct before they could reap as much profit as they could Created the checks and balances system in order to keep the president from becoming king US Constitution Four major places in the US Constitution that reinforce and protect slavery Article 1 Section 2 Clause 3 0 35 Compromise affected House of Representatives 9 not voting right but rather for representative rights 0 Senate maintained at 2 per state Article 1 Section 2 Clause 9 0 Cannot end slave trade until 1808 Article 4 Section 2 Clause 3 o Fugitive Slave Act 9 for slaves leaving your state does not protect you extradition 9 applied to everyone including indentured servants Article 5 o Amending the Constitution except to end slavery prior to 1808 and two senators per state 0 Conventional history Coup 9 coups are usually associated with third world countries Voting Rights Restricted to males with property ownership Later extended to make all white males able to vote earlier it wasn39t all white males due to indentured servitude Era of Jacksonian Democracy questioning critical dialect 9 in which the majority of white males were able to obtain the right to vote 0 Louisiana Purchase leads to the discussion of additional rights and leverage to those occupying the new borders 9 need to secure borders 0 Leads to exclusion of people of color and women Readings Civil Rights Chapter 15 Epistemology of Civil Rights in the United States o Blacks have always struggled for their rights freedom 9 from the international slave trade through today ie Incarceration Voting Rights Act 1964 9 prohibits discrimination in voting Malcolm X and MLK Assassination ignites a move from integrationinterracial coalitions to Black power empowerment politics 0 Black Panther Party 9 don39t go to the cops come to us so we can find a way to mediate the process that doesn39t involve the criminal justice system 9 started out as a basic outreach organization As it pertains to Black history in the US who are the primary actors discussed in US history 9 Usually all males forefathers presidents businessmen etc What are Civil Rights 9 protection of wealth and property and those that assume the power over wealth and property 9 civil rights aren39t universal constitutionally speaking International Slave Trade 0 From accessory to economic necessity o Slavery was universal poor whites native Americans Indians and African slaves 0 Reasons justifications for mass African enslavement Production was main reasonargument for transition to African slaves European escaped slaves also blended into their surrounding areas much easier Slavery was forever and generational 0 Religion Descendants of Ham accursed son of Noah savages pagans etc I Out of God39s guise beyond pae of civilization Out of the populousness of Africa 16 April 2014 Movie Judgment Day Africans in America 18 April 2014 Dred Scott v Sandford 19 Howard 393 1857 As a result of the Kansas Nebraska Act Kansas turned into a sort of battlefield First case in which the US Supreme Court overturned an act of Congress 9 expansion of the Supreme Court39s power 1834 Dred Scott slave was taken by his master Emerson to Illinois where slavery was prohibited Later he was taken in 1836 to a territory in Louisiana which was north of the Mason Dixon line where slavery was prohibited by the Missouri Compromise 0 Any territory or state coming in to the Union below the line could or could not be a slave state depending on popular preference but above the line it had to be a non save state Dred Scott had been taken to the Louisiana territory above the Mason Dixon line and the fact that he had been taken to Illinois 9 the basis for his case once free you can never be un free In 1838 he was brought back to Missouri Supreme Court could have said 0 You39re right when you went to Illinois and Louisiana you were free but when you went back to Missouri you became a slave again The vote in the case was 72 9 relatively strong case The decision was no the court held that Negro was not intended to be included under the term citizen thus he had no rights that a citizen would have The Negro had no rights which the white man was bound to respect The Founding Fathers owned slaves 9 if they owned slaves then they couldn39t have written that black people were supposed to be citizens The Founders of this country saw black people as creatures that were not only not citizens but things that could be put into slavery Chief Justice Taney agreed blacks are not citizens 0 Black people could be citizens of Massachusetts etc but not of the United States 0 Thus they are excluded from the portion of the Constitution that is the Bill of Rights they have no protection under the Bill of Rights 0 The Bill of Rights was applicable to the national government not the state government Slaves are property and a man has the right to move his property anywhere he wants to move it and Congress cant pass a law prohibiting him from moving his property 9 Congress can t pass a law prohibiting the movement of slaves 9 the immediate effect of this Constitutional mandate opens the country to slavery and thus the Civil War Civil War Lincoln had no interest in ending slavery per say The idea of freeing slaves was a secondary thing Emancipation Proclamation not an instrument to free slaves 9 it was carefully worded so as not to do this 0 It freed the slaves in the rebellious territories which Lincoln had no power in doing because they were in rebellion The Civil War was fought like a 19 century war in which armies fought against each other and at night the generals would meet and drink and the next day would go back to fighting 0 Almost all of the generals in the Civil War were graduates of West Point 9 they all knew each other 0 Problem the North is losing and they have to do something to correct that Emancipation Proclamation declaration of total war invention of total modern warfare 9 total war the target isn t the army of the enemy but the population ie What we did to Germany and Tokyo 9 if you can destroy the productive infrastructure of the society you can win the war In the south it is the slave population 9 if that population can be taken out the South would lose Black Studies 6 Civil Rights Movement 6814 135 PM 21 April 2014 13quot Amendment 9 abolished slavery and involuntary servitude Emancipation Proclamation total war document doesn39t end slavery The 13 Amendment is the one that ends slavery 15quot Amendment 9 prohibits the government from denying a citizen the right to vote based on race Gender is missing from this women are denied the right to vote 14quot Amendment 9 overturns Dred Scott Section 1 All persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States in the state in which they reside No state can deprive any person the right to life liberty or property without due process of law mechanics of the law Equal protection under the law Saughter House Cases Were the butchers of New Orleans denied rights under the 14 Amendment Section Notes 22 April 2014 Civil Rights Chapters 68 0 1787 Petition for educational facilities 0 Abolitionist Movement 9 end slavery and racial discrimination NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 0 Economically power was in the hand of the slave owner free production 9 political economy 0 Freedom39s Journal 9 free blacks need to start taking a stance and having a voice needs to be written from inside the community Chapters 910 0 Important for young black women to take their education into their own hands rather than focus on maintaining a home and getting a man 9 they have been cast away for a while because they are female 0 David Walker39s Appeal 0 White by Law Chapters 12 0 What white is in terms of the law 9 You have to be white to acquire citizenship Race based on common knowledge or scientific evidence 9 scientific knowledge gets turned into eugenics using science to justify racism 0 Prerequisite cases based on racial restrictions for naturalization In re Ah Yup Chinese naturalization 0 Citizenship by birthright those born in American are citizens but not everyone 0 Chinese Exclusion Acts 0 Asian barred zone Repatriation Acts 9 driven at the time of the Great Depression 9 O unemployment debt Chapters 34 0 Prerequisite cases 0 Ozawa and Thind citizenship Chapter 5 0 Legal construction of race Race on Trial Amistad O Dred Scott 0 Slavery could exist wherever the slave master took his slaves 0 Even though Dred Scott was brought into a free state he is property and it is his master39s right to bring his property wherever he chooses and that property can not be taken away Ceia s Case 0 Slave that was raped by slave master 0 She killed her master and the court ruling was that the slave master is allowed to do whatever he wants with his property and she was his property 23 April 2014 Strauder v West Virginia 100 US 303 1880 Case about racial discrimination Strauder a black man was convicted of murder and tried with an all white jury They found that it did violate the Equal Protection Clause because the purpose of the clause was quotto assure to the colored race the enjoyment of all the civil rights that under the law are enjoyed by white persons and to give to that race the protection of the general government in that enjoyment whenever it should be denied by the Statesquot Yick Wo v Hopkins 118 US 356 1886 Plessy v Laundry industry in San Francisco dominated by Chinese City council of San Francisco say that laundry can only take place in buildings made of brick or stone shutting down the Chinese laundries because they were in wooden buildings and making all the laundry places run by whites The Supreme Court says it is a violation Ferguson 163 US 537 1896 Codifies the segregation policies in the United States Particulars of the case 0 Intrastate case 0 1892 Plessy a citizen of Louisiana having 78 Caucasian blood and 18 African blood boarded a train from New Orleans to Covington in the same state 0 Conductor orders him to move out of the white passenger care and move to the Negro car 0 Plessy refuses he is forcibly jailed and convicted of violating the state statute of July 10 1890 which requires separate accommodation for whites and blacks on railroads o Plessy was upset about the arbitrary choice of 18 black to determine who was not white 0 Brought up as a 13 amendment case Plessy says his people were never slaves and by forcing him to be with black folks puts the term slavery on him 25 April 2014 Plessy v Ferguson continued Were his rights violated by the law that said that black people had to ride in the front carriages The ruling said that he didn39t buy a ticket to sit with white folks he bought a ticket to get to Covington which it did 9 it doesn39t matter where he sat his main purpose was to get to Covington 9 this eliminated his 13 amendment argument Logic of Plessy what has he lost if he hadn39t gotten kicked off the train he would have gotten where he needed to go 9 it doesn39t matter where he sat He had said that it bestowed upon him a badge of slavery 9 but no matter where he sat he still would have gotten to Covington Black Studies 6 Civil Rights Movement 6814 135 PM 28 April 2014 Documentary 30 April 2014 Significance of Jack Johnson fight Black man becomes the heavy weight champion of the world important position symbolic of manhood 9 in a world dominated by a world of white supremacy the symbol of manhood has to be white If most powerful man is black the basic myth of white supremacy is null Triumphant over white supremacy Great White Hope failed Victorian Era England dominated the world Moby Dick is about class struggle 9 domination of the world by the ruling class and their exploitation of the working class Race in the United States trumps class Exoduster Movement last representation of old nationalist movement Booker T Washington The people that Booker T Washington associated with were the most powerful people in the United States making them the most powerful in the world Atlanta Exposition Speech 0 Agreement between black leaders and white leaders 9 Southern blacks would work meekly and submit to white political rule while Southern whites guaranteed that the blacks would receive basic education and due process of law 0 We can be as separated as the fingers 0 Basic philosophy you don39t have to like each other but you have to do business with each other then everyone profits Our rights are guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States not Booker T Washington and his friends 9 we will all have our rights if they are enforced by the government 2 May 2014 Civil Rights Movement 9 began in 1787 when Constitution is written when United States comes into existence Dred Scott no black person can ever be a citizen of the US because they weren39t included in the contract Look at Constitution itself and look at 4 major places where slavery was codified Article 1 Section 2 Clause 3 35 compromise Article 1 Section 2 Clause 1 importation of slave trade couldn39t end slave trade prior to 1808 Article 4 Section 2 Clause 3 fugitive slave clause return slaves back to master Article 5 amend Constitution for any reason except to deny 2 senators for every state check on democracy or to end slave trade prior to 1808 Constitution is a document designed to maintain slavery and slave trade Founding Fathers engaged in slave trade Slavery primary institution around which society was structured Judgment Day how black community organized to resist Black people have no right the white people need to respect Judge Taney in Dred Scott case Black Studies 6 Civil Rights Movement 6814 135 PM 5 May 2014 MIDTERM Section Notes 6 May 2014 Dialectic Struggle 9 Booker T Washington and WEB DuBois WEB NAACP Niagara Movement Booker T elites 7 May 2014 The Second American Revolution part II Struggle of black people to secure for themselves the rights the are for all people claimed by the Declaration of Independence Do the words of the Constitution Declaration Bill of Rights apply to black people Separate but equal 9 Jim Crow o Putting black people down at the very bottom and keeping them there 0 Lynching robbing no right to vote no right to citizenship WWII was extremely segregated not even close to separate but equal Truman 1947 speech claiming to do something about Civil Rights o No justifiable reason for discrimination because of ancestry race or color Strom Thurmond for separation Desire to overturn Plessy v Ferguson Equal treatment means more than mere duplication of facilities 1954 Brown v Board of Education o Linda had to walk across a dangerous road far away to get to a black school even though there was a white school right next to her house 9 May 2014 If your rights are not being enforced by the government then those rights can be openly denied Why after WWII was the US all of a sudden willing to support black Civil Rights What is Ellis Island An island a mass of land surrounded on all sides by water An island off of the United States mainland Immigrants coming to the United States went first to Ellis Island A triage center they would give priority to how practical you would be to society not everyone was allowed in Racism the way to separate all the people that would not get along Black Studies 6 Civil Rights Movement 6814 135 PM Section Notes 13 May 2014 Brown v Board Simple Justice PBS series Reconstruction Era After the Civil War Amendments 13 14 15 13 abolished slavery 14 citizenship 15 black men right to vote Yick Wo v Hopkins Strauder v West Virg Plessy Principle 9 Jim Crowlose interpretation 9 Jim Crow born out of caricature white people using black face to represent slaves stereotypes were exaggerated Key Reconstruction characters Abraham Lincoln the great emancipator Frederick Douglass freed slave who endorsed the amendments Booker T Washington nationalist we will raise ourselves up from the ground with a little bit of help WEB DuBois against Booker T we aren39t on an equal playing field we actually need to fight and push for our constitutional rights issue of citizenship 9 pushing a more militant agenda questioning standard 0 Important to have Booker T and DuBois arguing the stance because it is starting to develop a national agenda national identity 9 weeding out separate but equal 0 Brought the idea that black people don39t want integration they want equal constitutional rightsequal protection under the law Jack Johnson black boxer that beat the white boxer show them that white supremacy isn39t real 9 challenged the notion of black inferiority 0 White fighter great white hope 0 The great white hope was knocked out KKK Reconstruction takes us up to the turn of the 20 century Beginning of 20 century Industrial Revolution WWI blacks weren39t allowed in combat but they were allowed to enlist they were stuck with the manual labor When they returned what did they face 0 Initially accepted as having been part of the war 0 Once things began to normalize Jim Crow emerged again 0 Housing black people were marginalized Prohibition 9 Great Depression 9 Welfare State There was a lot of change but none really for the black community WWII everyone fights because there is a draft drafts don39t discriminate Blacks general labor little by little they inch their way towards battle When they return what did they face 0 0 Society hasn39t changed in terms of how they acceptedsaw them Red Scare School why can t people move up in the workplace Most likely lack of education 14 May 2014 Earl Warren attorney general for California before he became judge Brown V Enforced removal of Japanese Americans into camps Board Vote 90 decision by Supreme Court Does segregation of children in public schools on the basis of race deprive the children of equal educational opportunities even if the facilities are the same 9 YES IT IS UNCONSTITUTIONAL violation of Equal Protection Clause of 14 amendment McLaurin V Oklahoma Loving V George McLaurin was denied entry to University of Oklahoma sued and won on the basis of the 14 amendment Virginia 1967 Black woman white man were married in DC returned to Virginia indicted for violating ban on interracial marriage Chief Justice Warren vote 90 Violation of 14 amendment statute violated equal protection and due process clause miscegenation statute is based only on racial classification violates central meaning of Equal Protection Clause Freedom to marry is a personal civil right This does not mean that the fight is over the Supreme Court can pass a law but that does not mean it is enforced in society enforcement of laws is not the responsibility of Supreme Court Black Studies 6 Civil Rights Movement 6814 135 PM 19 May 2014 NAACP comes out of Niagara Movement Throughout most of early history not black organization multiracial organization Ida B Wells founding mother of Niagara Movement 9 credit is given to WEB DuBois instead 0 Famous for organizing anti ynching campaign Goals 0 Overturn Plessy v Ferguson 0 Get national anti ynching legislation CORE Congress of Racial Equality Original activist organization National Urban League Collects statistical information about nature of black America Section Notes 20 May 2014 Malcolm X39s father a preacher and nationalist way before Malcolm X himself SNCC 9 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Kids are young and courageous Kids are stupid they will do anything they are told Thus the kids were the main ones that did everything
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