Soc152A Final Review
Soc152A Final Review
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SOC 152A FINAL REVIEW PGS 3019 304 Americans Are Divided on Abortion but Most Favor Restricted Availability 1 In E the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Roe vs Wade that states could not enact an outright ban on abortions before the age of fetal viability 2 The abortion debate is often portrayed as being divided between two opposing camps however people often find their in between the two extremes a Prmli t i Elective abortion is always wrong and should be considered a criminal offense b Pro choice i Women should be allowed to make all abortion decisions for themselves 3 The Abortion Debate Focused on Specific Issues a Because the majority of Americans tend to be more moderate in their views towards abortion much of the pro choice vs pro life debate revolves around specific issues see pgs 304 i Should there be conditions such as a mandatory 24 hr waiting period Y Should there be a ban on late term abortions CHAPTER 12 Sexual Orientation There is a Spectrum of Sexual Orientations 1 Sexual orientation the direction of a person s sexual feelings toward persons of the same sex the other sex or both sexes 2 Alfred Kinsey s seven point scale of sexual orientation a Ranges from group 0 exclusively attracted to the opposite sex to group 6 exclusively attracted to the same sex Sexual Orientation is Not an Isolated Trait 1 Not all gay M are effeminate and not all lesbians are mannish these are stereotypes 2 But gay people on average do differ from straight people of the same sex in a number of gender related traits For example a In childhood gay M engage in less rough and tumble play as well as sports than females in gay W the opposite is true Diverse Theories Attempt to Explain Sexual Orientation 3 Psychodynamic theories in terms of internal mental processes vs biological theories in terms of phenomena such as hormones genes 1 2 Freud Theories a Thought that the normal development process could be disrupted by disrupted by abnormal relationships within the family 9 certain phenomena could block normal development and child could remain stuck in early homosexual phase 3 Sexual orientation as an attribution of socialization a As a result of molestation during childhood from rape or other early sexual experience b No positive evidence for a parental in uence 4 Biological theories focus on prenatal hormones and genes a See Simon LeVay s guest lecture notes b Prenatal hormonal hypothesis leading theory proposes that sexual orientation re ects sexual differentiation of the brain under the in uence of prenatal sex hormones fetuses exposed to high levels of androgens will be sexually attracted to W and vice versa i Everything depends on androgen levels during a sensitive period of prenatal development fetuses exposed to E of androgens will be sexually attracted to women and vice versa Has a solid basis in animal research c INAH3 part of the brain that differs in size between men women and homosexual men and women d Read pages 374 376 ESPECIALLY if you did not attend the guest lecture The Gay Community Has Struggled for Equal Rights 1 Gay rights movement began in Germany Scienti c Humanitarian Committee a Stonewall Rebellion often views as the starting point of the modern gay rights movement i Before rebellion homosexuality was officially listed as a mental disorder and gay people had no legal protection b E used to represent the entirety of gay social life c AIDS epidemic as a gay disease d Pro gay trend i Important judicial and legislative decisions pgs 381 383 2 Gay people are in transition a Slight majorigg of Americans still believe that sex between M or between W is morally wrong b Many hate crimes 3 Gay rights are a global issue a Most ban homosexual behavior completely capital offense in Irjan and a few other Islamic countries Growing up Gay Presents Challenges 1 Exclusion from friendship groups verbal abuse 2 Some gay adolescents choose to pass as straight a But this can interfere with psychological development and with sexual and social relationships in later life 3 Growing up gay can be a positive experience a Importance of role models discussions on gay issues support organizations teacher efforts parent acceptance 4 Coming out is a lifelong process a Several elements to the coming out process i coming out to oneself hardest step for many X coming out to others a gradual process joining a gay or lesbian community 1 moving to a gay mecca used to be popular but this may be a cause of isolation iv integrating the gay side of their identity with other aspects of who they are 5 Lesbians amp gay M are well represented in certain occupations a Lesbians are overrepresented in professional sports b Gay M are overrepresented in creative arts 6 Gay people who belong to minorities have special concerns Gay Sex Has Its Own Style 1 Physical pleasure and emotional intimacy as primary goals 2 Same sex couples take their time over sex 3 Some sexual activity may be in groups rather than 13 4 Some lack options so they have sex in places like parks and toilets a Sex in bathhouses large numbers of men engage in sex in a semi public environment 5 Large s of gay M live in very ordinary monogamous relationships 6 There is diversity within the gay community a May be divided into subtypes on the basis of gender characteristics i Butch masculine acting and femme feminine acting j Tops and bottoms b Sexual and social subcultures i Ie bears burly gay men with plenty of body hair 7 Some gay people are parents a Most children are going to come from opposite sex relationships b Can adopt a child c But can produce and rear children as well very expensive 8 Children of gay parents generally J a Most certain to be wanted and loved never an accident b Do not differ significantly from children of heterosexual couples i May suffer a degree teasing or taunting Changing Sexual Orientation is Difficult or Impossible 1 Generally conversion treatments are ineffective and potentially harmful Homophobia Has Multiple Roots 1 Gay bashing hate crimes against gay people 2 Homophobia includes an entire spectrum of anti gay attitudes and behaviors 3 Cultural indoctrination transmits homophobia across generations a Receiving anti gay messages from parents teachers religious authorities etc b Regular participation in organized worship I strongest demographic predictor that a person disapproves of gay sex c Silence can also convey an anti gay message i Failure of media to present positive images 4 Homosexuality is seen as transgressive a Gay people break rules disrupting the natural order of things motivations for anti gay attitudes b Femiphobia prejudice against femininity in males c Strongly homophobic attitudes may be associated with homosexual feelings that the person denies or is unaware of 5 Overcoming homophobia must start at the bottom a Passage of nondiscrimination and hate crime statues b Gay positive attitudes of leaders c Interactions with people Whom they have ongoing association Bisexuals Are Caught Between Two Worlds 1 The prevalence of bisexuality depends on definitions a Bisexual is commonly used as a self identif1er by young men who are on their way to coming out of the closet b At the level of genital arousal most or all W seem to be bisexual 2 Bisexuals face prejudice a Biphobia negative attitudes towards bisexual people i More widespread than anti gay attitudes b Belief that people who claim to be bisexual are oversexed c Negative belief that bisexuals are starting to change especially among college students d These negative views are starting to change especially among college students e Have lagged behind gays and lesbians in developing a community identity CHAPTER 17 Sex as a Commodity Can Money buy you Love 1 Prostitution the practice of engaging in sex for pay 2 Historically prostitution viewed as a necessary evil a The oldest profession b Only way in which unattached women could support themselves c Development of red light districts in late 19th century 3 Prostitution is on the decline a High proportion of male and or transgendered prostitutes in some cities b Illegal everywhere in US except parts of Nevada and Rhode Island There is a Hierarchy of Prostitution 1 Street prostitution or street walking Most visible and familiar part of the industry Lowest rank and charge lowest prices Lifetime of social degradation Majority of female prostitutes are mothers M prostitutes tend to be independent workers where as W often work for pimps i Pimps man who manages prostitutes in exchange for portion of earnings 1 Much less common in recent years 2 Working out of a fixed commercial location a Le a massage parlor or strip joint b Services vary but hand genital contact massages are most common DPA CT c Brothels are uncommon but exist in rural Nevada i Are legal in other countries 3 Escort service prostitution Off street prostitution not tied to a speci c service location a Call girl i Prostitutes are relatively upscale in terms of clientele and price Clients sometimes want the girlfriend experience b Premier escorts are prostitutes that are well presented and can be taken to dinners or shows i Often work for madams who have access to affluent society c Gigolo male escorts paid for by women uncommon in the US Good Pay is the Main Motive for Prostitution 1 Some prostitutes have special needs that require a high income transgender and prostitutes addicted to drugs 2 M use prostitutes for many reasons a Difficulty nding unpaid sex partners b Avoid hassles involved with regular dating c Issues with frequency and variety of sex with spouse or partner 3 The prostitutes rights movement a Works for decriminalization elimination of laws that outlaw prostitution b COYOTE mission is to improve the image and working conditions for prostitutes c Legalization with regulation prostitutes would be allowed to work in prescribed locations and under defined conditions ie Nevada 4 The debate on prostitution is world wide a Conditions are worse in developing countries 5 Juvenile and coerced prostitution are global problems a Demand comes from local men but also overseas travelers b Transnational trafficking of W i Transportation of women from one country to another usually for purposes of prostitution Phone Sex erotic telephone conversations often carried out for pay 1 Advantages easier and safer for operators convenient and cheaper for customer Pornography Has Always Been Part of Human Culture 1 Pornography depictions of people or behaviors that are intended to be sexually arousing a Estimated to be a 13 billion a year industry in the US b Erotica sexually themed works deemed to have literary or artistic merit 2 Pornography has battled censorship a Obscene sexually offensive or threatening to public morality b No artistic merit 3 There is some pornography for W a Usually more soft core and romantic in nature b Romance novel see lecture notes There Are Conflicting Perspectives on the Value or Harm of Pornography 1 Radical feminist perspective a Pornography promotes physical or sexual violence or other forms of harm against women 2 Liberal perspective a Downplays any harmful effects b Protected by first amendment 3 Research has not resolved the question of pornography s effects a Most M are not rendered more likely to harm W by exposure to any kind of pornography b Some suggest that sex crimes become i when pornography consumption increases 4 Underage pornography is widely condemned but common in some countries a Illegal in US b Stimulated underage pornography pg 553 c m is the world leader in production of underage pornography as Well as anime pornography Sex is Part of the Mass Media 1 TV glorifies adultery and promiscuigy while portraying marital sex E and non existent 2 Sexual references on TV are not necessarily harmful ie familiarizing with homosexuality may decrease anti gay discrimination 3 May be an educational opportunity but is it really a good one pg 555 CHAPTER 11 Sexuality across the Lifespan Adulthood In Young Adulthood Conflicting Demands Moderate Sexual Expression 1 Most young M and W have only a few sex partners a Secondary abstinence actively choosing not to have sex after having had sex at some previous time Cohabitation is an Increasingly Prevalent Lifestyle 1 Cohabitation live in sexual relationship between to persons who are not married to each other a Majority of young people will enter into a cohabiting relationship b Most likely to cohabit i Younger people People whose parents separated when they were children n Non religious c Typically short lived 2 Marriages preceded by cohabitation end quicker than those that are not a Why Cohabitation Effect i Most likely that live in relationships tend to last a certain time so if some of that time is spent in cohabitation the marriage will be that much shorter z Couples who cohabit have less traditional views about marriage and divorce 3 Cohabitation has different meanings a About 40 of cohabiting couples have children b May be experienced like a experimental marriage or trial run c But possibly poor management of conflicts and less overall satisfaction with the relationship d Breaking up is less public embarrassment e May be perceived as an alternative to dating rather than marriage f Even some conservative cultures around the world have sanctioned impermanent sexual relationships ie Mut a a Shi ite contract of temporary marriage Marriage Takes Diverse Forms 1 Social and personal functions of formalized sexual unions a Creating an environment favorable for having children i Identifying man s responsibilities cB Bringing the couple s extended families together 2 Intended to stabilize their union 2 Polygamy marriage to more than one spouse at a time a Permitted in many societies b Connected to the idea that women are men s property c Polyandry marriage of one woman to more than one man i Very uncommon 3 Polyamory people who openly and intentionally participate in non monogamous relationships a Some are swingers Couples who agree to engage in casual sexual contact with others b Some engage in group marriage 3 or more people living together in a marriage like relationship i Can be open or closed no sex with outsiders c Its appeal may be limited by problems with jealousy The Institution of Marriage is Evolving 1 Western institution of marriage has evolved Companionate marriage a Companionate marriage makes the availability of divorce a necessity b Marriage seen as an emotional and practical partnership 2 Companionate marriage makes the availability of divorce a necessity a Prenuptialpostnuptial agreements increasingly common b Married people are significantly happier than unmarried 3 Marriage is becoming a minority status a People are marrying later and splitting up sooner b 00 that are currently married is steadily falling Most Married Couples are Satis ed with their Sex Lives 1 W s physical satisfaction is much greater in long term relationships than in short term relationships 2 Emotional satisfaction is higher in marriage 3 Frequency of sex declines during marriage but many say SATISFACTION INCREASES a Why Increasing familiarity with partner and dimming of passionate love b Biggest decline follows the birth of first child 4 W s marital satisfaction declines during middle age a On the whole Wives are less satisfied with their marriages than their husbands Many Factors Bring Relationships to an End 1 Four major factors a Passage of time b Age at marriage c Ethnicity d Education Level 2 Overall divorce rate is M a Divorce rate for people with college degrees is less than half What it is for those Without 3 Dissimilarity between husbands and wives shortens marriages 4 Virgins have longer marriages Marital Disruption Can Have Negative and Positive Consequences 1 Divorced M and W can suffer physical psychological and economic damage a Children may experience a heightened risk of i Depression 0 Behavior problems Low academic performance iv Substance abuse v Criminality vi Early sexual activity Low academic performance substance abuse criminality early sexual activity 2 Marital disruption may also have positive consequences a Escape from an unhappy possibly abusive relationship potential for forming a better one 3 Stepchildren may be disadvantaged a Twice as likely to suffer from behavioral problems b Child abuse c Still majority of stepchildren do Well in school and don t have emotional or behavioral problems 4 Later marriages are less durable a So experience gained from the 1 marriage doesn t seem to stabilize later one Menopause final cessation of menstrual cycles 1 Perimenopause the phase prior to menopause that is marked by irregular menstrual cycles 2 Menopause may be caused by the depletion of oocyte 3 Climacteric woman s transition to infertility that culminates in menopause 4 Decreased hormones levels affect some W s sexual responses a decrease in vaginal lubrication a thinning of the vaginal walls i May lead to painful coitus and vaginal in ammation b Lowered estrogen levels i Hot ashes night sweats headaches Osteoporosis loss of bone density W typically experience some i in sexual desire at menopause a Probably results mainly from combined effects listed above b Other factors such as relationship issues general health attitudes towards sex and aging and psychological effects 6 Hormone therapy can reduce menopausal symptoms a Menopausal hormone therapy 0 PG 357 Postmenopausal hormone therapy is controversial a Due to possible ill effects has been restricted to the short term relief of menopausal symptoms and lowest possible dose b Lifestyle choices may be more valuable P l Men s Fertility Declines Gradually With Age 1 Gradual reduction in fertility and sexual functioning T likelihood of ED L sexual desire and frequency of sex 2 May be referred to as male menopause or andropause but misleading since these changes are NOT a total cessation but a gradual process The Sex Lives of Old people Have Generally Been Ignored 1 Traditional assumption that older people are asexual a Younger peoples negative discomfort may result from lack of empathy b Everyone continues to have sexual feelings into old age 2 Aging is accompanied by physiological changes in the sexual response a Read top of pg361 for specific changes 3 Medical conditions can impair the sexuality of old people a Arthritis heart disease osteoporosis diabetes obesity b Prescription drugs can interfere with sexual performance c 2 biggest factors health status and sense of how sexually responsive their partners are d People generally become happier with age 4 Coping strategies may require exibility a W may form sexual relationships with younger men b May practice oral sex instead 5 Some old people remain sexually active a Plenty of old W and M masturbate b The more people engage in sexual behaviors earlier in life the more likely they will engage in them later c Opportunities for sexual expression by nursing home residents could be improved d OLD PEOPLE WHO ENGAGE IN FREQUENT SEX E more likely to have less health risks PGS 324 3327 CHAPTER 10 Adolescence is a Time of Sexual Exploration 1 Beginning of adolescence a May correspond to puberty menarche first ejaculation b Testosterone level i Strong predictor of when person will begin to engage in partnered sex Many cultures have puberty rites 1 Puberty is often marked by special coming of age ceremonies 2 Breast ironing bar mitzvah bat mitzvah quinceanera a Examples of puberty rites pp 324325 There are social in uences on teen sexual behavior 1 Adolescents are likely to initiate sexual activity early if a Their community has a low average income few college graduates a high crime rate or high unemployment b Having a significantly older boyfriend or girlfriend 2 Television a Girls are being prematurely sexualized by exposure The sexual behavior of American teens has and diversified 1 Social changes since 1940 s have caused teenage sexual activity to increase a Oral contraceptives legalization of abortion 2 In recent years sexual activity in US has been leveling off to slight decrease in adolescent Noncoital sex is popular among teens 1 Oral sex is common a More commonly teens have first oral sex shortly after first vaginal E b Thus oral sex is usually an addition to rather than replacement of coitus 2 Ethnic differences a Far more African American adolescents engage in coitus but less likely to have engaged in noncoital behaviors b Far less Asian American and Paci c Islander adolescents i ever engaged in coitus Teen Relationships 1 Is Dating outdated a Serial monogamy youth has a series of exclusive relationships with girlfriends and or boyfriends b Casual sex seems to be becoming more common 2 Traditional social patterns have been modified a Nowadays sexual relationships have a more affectionate and recreational function b Changing balance of sexual power PGS 1983 210 CHAPTER 7 SEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS Moral Judgments About Sex Depend on its Context 1 The more affectionate intimate or commited the relationship the more likely people are to consider sexual acts morally acceptable 2 Demographic factors affect sexual attitudes a Sex age education region race ethnicity religion read on pg 198201 Americans Attitudes Have Changed Over Time 1 Decline in 00 who think sex before marriage is always wrong 2 Decline in 00 who think homosexual sex is wrong 3 Increase in 00 who think extramarital sex affairs are wrong Casual Sex Has More Appeal to Men than to Woman 1 M more likely to consider one night stands morally acceptable 2 Hooking up the new norm a Many young W are becoming much more open to engaging in casual uncommitted sexual intimacy with acquaintances 3 Casual sex is more accepted in the gay male community 4 Negotiating sex involves flirting a Women often take the first step in the interaction b At some point M takes a more controlling role Dating Relationships are Often Short Lived 1 Dating relationships usually involve some degree of physical intimacy sexual exclusivity may be expected 2 Serial monogamy 3 1 dates may follow a script a Traditional script demands M take leading active role b W takes the reactive role 4 Dating relationships may evolve rapidly a Tendency to idealize a partner minimization of the importance of their partner s shortcomings Pg 220 2246 COMMUNICATION Communication Is a Key Factor in the Success of Relationships 1 Many couples are reluctant to communicate about sexual issues a Stems from a tradition of silence about sexual matters b Gender barrier may compound communication problems 2 Cultural factors inhibit communication in certain groups a Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans have a custom of silence on sexual issues Dealing with Conflict 1 Gottman studied relationship conflict a Found that ggr is not necessarily bad as long as there is open communication b 5 positive statements for every 1 negative statement 2 Behavioral couples therapy focuses on improving positive communication GOOD LUCK ON YOUR FINAL