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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheyanne Skaggs on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 2500 at Ohio University taught by Carson Wagner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Strategic Communication in Journalism Core at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Introduction to Strategic Communication J 2500 Carson Wagner Week 2 I II III II Intro To Consumer Attention Cognitive Capacity Consumer Comprehension Why do Strategic Communicators study consumer attention Strategic Communicators and Advertisers need to study consumer attention because it is the basis of their entire careers Both fields require marketing technics be used and it is valuable to know both how to grab attention and how to avoid attention Why is this valuable An understanding of how to grab attention is obvious In advertising we want to grab our consumer s attention and hopefully by remembering things about our advertisement or marketing campaign they will have a greater probability to purchase the goods or services On the other hand avoiding attention is just as important in strategic communication Public relations firms like the ones for gas and oil companies for example may need to divert the public s attention from an oil spill or an increase in gas prices by incorporating more friendly messages Cognitive Capacity is the total amount of information the brain is capable of retaining at any particular moment Why don t advertisements work every time Humans have what s known as limited cognitive capacity which means the amount of information we can store at any given moment is finite This is why not all details of advertising and marketing can be recalled after being exposed to hundreds even thousands per day Miller s Magic Number Seven quotThe Magical Number Seven Plus or Minus Two Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Informationquot was published in 1956 by the cognitive psychologist George A Miller of Princeton University39s Department of Psychology in Psychological Review Miller s research has revealed that the number of objects an average person can hold in their working memory is 7 2 This is what s called Miller s Law Attention Intensity the amount of attention the average person can pay at any given time Attention Factors 1 Prior Knowledge of a subject and Depth of Knowledge If someone has prior knowledge of background information about a subject or product they don t have to store the preliminary facts because those are already internalized This way a person can internalize more information and can move into idea sub groups since heshe is already acquainted with the main idea or purpose This has to do with how we store information EX How many songs can you name by your favorite artist The Strokes First you would start with the hits You Only Live Once Reptilia This Is It then you would move on to more obscure titles from more obscure albums 2 Arousal how awake or alert we are Just like sleep deprivation can cause physical side effects it can cause mental ones as well Not sleeping enough can cause a major disconnect when trying to internalize something into long or short term memory But the theory of arousal isn t that simple The more awake you are and the more attention you are able to pay is not a positive relationship or rather it is at first Research has shown that being awake does enhance attention for a period of time but after too long too much alertness can result in us not being able to retain as much because we are processing too much Therefore the relationship between arousal and how much attention we pay is a systematic relationship Selective Attention The act of focusing on a particular thing for a period of time while simultaneously ignoring irrelevant information that is also occurring However there is a fine line between what we choose to pay attention to and where that attention goes 1 Voluntary Attention what a person chooses to pay attention to in relation to currently relevant information 2 Involuntary Attention what a person pays attention to contrary of their desire to 3 Salience in psychology the study of perception and cognition to refer to any aspect of a stimulus that for any of many reasons stands out from the rest 4 Vivid Stimuli in psychology an energy change such as light or sound which is registered by the senses In this case a particularly memorable one Salience is context dependent Ex Someone talking loudly on the phone vs someone holding a phone up to their ear yet not talking Vividness is person dependent Ex Someone pays more attention to the song playing in the mall because it used to be associated with their former lover 111 Consumer Comprehension The ability of a consumer to learn the meaning of new information by relating old information stored in memory Semantics formal semantics the logical aspects of meaning such as sense reference implication and logical form lexical semantics which studies word meanings and word relations and conceptual semantics which studies the cognitive structure of meaning Objectivity taking in and doling out information with no bias Comprehension the action or capability to understand something Comprehension vs Miscomprehension When we comprehend something we understand something or believe to be true and it actually is When we miscomprehend we understand something though that information is false in actuality Pragmatic Inference An inference which is likely to be true because of the state of the world even though it may not be true EX You would assume that the capital of California is Los Angeles since it is the largest municipality when in fact it s Sacramento which is not even in the top five most populace Piecemeal Data ie data in pieces this is used in marketing to compare specific attributes of a product or other products in a way that makes it likely that the consumer will infer that your product is the better Juxtaposition of imperatives by placing to statements together you can lead someone to believe that one causes or leads to the other Which leads to Affirmation of the consequent the logical fallacy of the converse or confusion of necessity and sufficiency a formal fallacy of inferring the converse from the original statement The corresponding argument has the general form If P then Q Q Therefore P Ex Socrates is mortal Man is moral Therefore Socrates is a man The takeaway here is that many animals are mortal and just because Socrates is mortal does not mean he is a man He could be a dog Deceptive Advertising the use of false or misleading statements in advertising and misrepresentation of the product at hand EX Splenda made from sugar so it tastes like sugar
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