Chapters 1: Characteristics of Life
Chapters 1: Characteristics of Life BIO 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelley Freeman on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 100 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Kenneth Blank in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology in Biology at Eastern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
BIO 100 Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life Section 11 Organization of Life Cell smallest simplest form of life I It can be made of up one cell unicellular or many cells multicellular Tissue similar cells working together Organ made up of tissues Organ System separate organs working together Organism one individual intricate individuals have organ systems Population the same species of organisms in a certain area Community populations in a certain area interacting with each other Ecosystem a community in addition to the surrounding environment Biosphere the Earth s regions that have living things Life Requires Energy and Materials 0 Food source of energy building blocks of organisms I Energy the ability to do work 0 The sun is the greatest source of energy 0 Photosynthesis changes energy from the sun into chemical energy for food I Metabolism chemical reactions that happen in a cell Maintain Internal Environment 0 Homeostasis the maintenance of inner conditions but in certain boundaries I Possibly by behavior animals moving to a place with warmer temperatures I Doesn t always require conscious activity your liver releasing stored sugar to help keep your body temperature the same Response 0 Many times organisms move to find an energy source or nutrients by interacting with their surroundings Reproduction and Development 0 Reproduce creating another organism like itself I Singled celled organism and bacteria will split themselves in 2 I Reproduction in multicellular organisms starts with sperm and egg 0 Genes inherited genetic information from your parents I Always constructed of DNA 0 Mutations changes in genetic information Adapt o Adaptations changes that make an organism better suited for their way of life I Could result in evolution BIO 100 Section 12 0 Evolution when populations adapt over time to better suit themselves for their environment I This creates diversity and unity in life 0 Natural Selection changes made by organisms due to the environment 0 Taxonomy categorizing organisms according to specific rules 0 Systematics organizing organisms based on evolutionary relationships Categories of Classification biggest to smallest 1 Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species 9 39FquotUquot39gtS J Domains 1 Domain Archaea a Can live in very harsh environments b Prokaryote unicellular doesn t have a membrane bound nucleus c Similar to the first ever cells on Earth 2 Domain Bacteria a Basic structure but is extremely diverse b Prokaryote c Can thrive anywhere 3 Domain Eukarya a Eukaryote b Can be broken down into 4 kingdoms i Protists very diverse ii Plants multicellular organisms who go through photosynthesis iii Animals multicellular organisms who consume food iv Fungi a type of bacteria many are mold and mushrooms c Most are single celled but they can be multicellular d They have characteristics from both plant and animal organisms o Binomial Name a name scientists give living things to avoid confusion I 1st word is the genus which may be abbreviated to one letter I 2quot l word is the specific epithet of a species within a genus BIO 100 Section 13 Scientific Method Steps 1 Make an Observation a Try to identify a pattern 2 Create a Hypothesis a Hypothesis an educated guess based on knowledge you already have b Inductive Reasoning gathering many facts and combining together c This will explain the pattern identified earlier 3 Perform an Experiment a Experiment a series of tasks to test your hypothesis Experimental Design the way a scientist performs his experiment Prediction an educated guess on what the experiment results will be Experimental Variable what is changed on purpose in the experiment Test Groups the groups that are given the experimental variable Control Group the group that remains constant that is not given the Experimental Variable Model something that is chosen by scientists because they are easily controlled h Placebo what they control group is given to mimic the experimental variable but has no effect on the group 4 Evaluate the Results a Data the results from the experiment 5 Conclusion a Conclusion the decision whether your hypothesis was supported or not Thee9939 2 0 Scientific Theories explanations that are socially excepted often explain how the world actually works 0 Principle can be used instead of theories and are generally accepted by majority of scientists I May also be called a law Section 14 0 Technology the use of scientific knowledge to the interest of man 0 Bioethics a portion of ethics concerned with the expansion and consequences of biological technology Biodiversity the differences in life most commonly refers to the amount of different species Extinction the loss of life in an entire species 0 Global Warming an increasing of temperature due to the increase of carbon dioxide that is in the atmosphere