Chapter 3: Organic Molecules
Chapter 3: Organic Molecules BIO 100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelley Freeman on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 100 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Kenneth Blank in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology in Biology at Eastern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
BIO 100 Chapter 3 Organic Molecules Section 31 0 Organic Molecule any molecule that contains both hydrogen and carbon atoms I Biological the function and different types of organic molecules Carbon Atom Has a total of 6 electrons with 4 electrons in the outer share 0 The ability to bond with 4 other elements 0 Most of the time will share with hydrogen nitrogen and oxygen 0 Hydrocarbon many carbon atoms that are bonded only with hydrogen atoms 0 Isomers molecules that have the exact same number and type of atoms I For example C6H1206 can be either glucose or fructose 0 Skeleton also known as backbone it is the carbon chain or organic molecules 0 Functional Group a certain combination of linked atoms that always react in the same way meaning they have the same chemical properties 0 Hydrophobic fear of water meaning not soluble in water 0 Hydrophilic water loving meaning soluble in water Section 32 4 Categories of Biological Molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids PWP o Monomer a smaller molecule that comes from the polymer a subunit 0 Polymer several monomers linked together 0 Dehydration Synthesis Reaction a chemical reaction that results in the covalent bond that also has a loss of a water molecule it also joins monomers creating polymers 0 Hydrolysis Reaction polymers being broken by the addition of a water molecules BIO 100 Carbohydrates o Monomer is saccharides or sugars I Specifically glucose Functions I Instant energy source I In plants fungi it can play a structural role 0 Carbs can be a single sugar 2 sugars bonded together or several sugar molecules linked together o It is the most abundant of the organic molecules on Earth 0 Monosaccharide a single sugar molecule can be known as a simple sugar I For example Glucose which has 2 isomers called galactose and fructose o Disaccharide 2 monosaccharides bonded together by using a dehydration synthesis reaction I For example Maltose Sucrose and Lactose o Polysaccharides several polymer of monosaccharides bonded together I Can be used for a short term storage of energy I Starch for plants I Glycogen for animals I Can play a structural role I Cellulose most plentiful of all the carbs 0 Found in plant cell walls 0 Some animals cannot digest cellulose I Chitin many glucose molecules bonded together o Is in the exoskeleton of shell fish 0 Can be used in medicine as a wound dressing Lipids I Monomer is Fatty Acids I Functions 0 Long term energy source 0 Insulation for marine life 0 Protects internal organs from damage 0 Helps waterproof skin feathers andor hair like lotion I All are insoluble hydrophobic in water I Long nonpolar links of hydrocarbon lacks hydrophilic components I Very diverse have many different structures and functions 0 Fatty Acid a chain of carbon atoms only linked by hydrogen bonds and also have a carboxyl group at one end 0 Glycerol has 3 OH groups hydrophobic o Triglycerides made of a glycerol molecules and 3 fatty acids primary long term energy storage 0 Unsaturated Fatty Acids either single or multiple bonds among carbon atoms liquid at room temperate o For example oil BIO 100 0 Saturated Fatty Acid carbon atoms that have no double bonds solid at room temperature 0 For example butter 0 Trans Fat fatty acids that are mixed with hydrogen which makes them more saturated more solid 0 For example margarine 0 Phospholipids have a phosphate group attached 0 Form the majority of the plasma membrane 0 1 end is hydrophilic water loving located on the edges of the bilayer o 1 end is hydrophobic water hating located in the middle of the bilayer o Steroids a type of lipid that is made of a carbon made of four fused rings making it very unique 0 Cholesterol in an animal plasma membrane 0 Sex hormones Proteins I Monomer is amino acids I Several functions 0 Support structurally o Metabolism 0 Transport 0 Defense 0 Regulation 0 Motion 0 Amino Acid polymers of proteins 0 Joined together by dehydration synthesis reaction 0 Peptide Bond two amino acids joined together by a covalent bond 0 Peptide one or more amino acids bonded together by a covalent bond 0 Polypeptide a link of amino acids joined by a peptide bond 0 Denatured the loss of function and structure Shape of Protein 0 Primary Structure a proteins sequence of amino acids 0 Secondary Structure happens when a part of the amino acid chain change shape normally forms helices or pleated sheets 0 Tertiary Structure 3 dimensional shape that happens because the secondary structure creates folds and twists helps to determine function 0 Quaternary Structure one or several polypeptide chains where each chain has its own primary secondary and tertiary structure BIO 100 Nucleic Acids O Monomers are nucleotides Nucleotides has 3 parts 0 The phosphate 0 A 5carbon sugar 0 A nitrogen containing base I Adenine A Guanine G Cytosine C Thymine TUraci U DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid very stable houses genetic information 0 Sugar is deoxyribose o In the shape of a double helix 0 The information is passed on to RNA through base pairing I AT amp CG RNA Ribonucleic Acid very unstable helps make proteins 0 Sugar is ribose 0 Single stranded 0 Genetic information is stored in the base pairing I AT amp CU Mutations any change in DNA Adenosine Triphosphate ATP is the energy carrier in cells
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