Chapter 4: Inside the Cell
Chapter 4: Inside the Cell BIO 100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelley Freeman on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 100 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Kenneth Blank in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology in Biology at Eastern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
BIO 100 Chapter 4 Inside the Cell Section 41 0 Light Microscope 17th century allows you to see cells but not in great detail because the organism must be thin enough for light to shine through it 0 Electron Microscope 1930s allows you to see cells in great detail because instead of light it uses beams of electrons 0 Surface Area to Volume Ratio the greater the surface area to internal volume the faster materials can be exchanged Section 42 0 Plasma Membrane the outer layer of a cell that determines what goes in and out of the cell I It is made of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins I The bilayer has hydrophilic heads on the edges where the water is located and hydrophobic tails that is between the heads away from all water I Fluid Mosaic Model a way to describe the structure of a plasma membrane the proteins in the membrane have a pattern that resembles a mosaic I Glycoprotein a short link of sugars attached to the outside of the proteins 0 The proteins help with certain functions determine identity and aid in immune response Types of Membrane Proteins 1 Channel Proteins a In the shape of a tunnel b The channel allows only certain molecules to move across the membrane 2 Transport Proteins a Also helps molecules and ions move through the membrane b They will combine with the protein at one end are released into the cell or outside the cell depending on the direction they are going with an output of energy 3 Cell Recognition Proteins a Also known as glycoproteins b Helps our bodies to identify which cells are our own and which are from other organisms 4 Receptor Proteins a Have a certain shape that matches with a specific molecule known as a signal molecule b When they two the protein and signal molecule come together they trigger a cellular response 5 Enzymatic Proteins a Directly participate in metabolic reactions b Enzymes speed up or slow down reactions 6 Junction Proteins a They help cells connect and communicate O BIO 100 Section 43 Cell Theory all cells come from preexisting cells and all living things are made up of cells What is Common to all Cells OOOOO Nucleus 0000 A plasma membrane made of phospholipid bilayer Cytoplasm semifluid interior DNA Prokaryotic Cell cells that lack a nucleus Pro meaning before and Karyon meaning nucleus I Two domains are Archaea and Bacteria I Much smaller and simpler in structure than eukaryotes I They reproduce much quicker I The great diversity among prokaryotes shows the great diversity among life on Earth Cell Wall the thickest outer layer of plant cells helps to keep the shape of the cell Capsule thin layer of polysaccharides outside the cell wall for protection Nucleoid where the DNA is housed in prokaryotic cells Ribosomes help in protein synthesis Flagella long hairlike structures on the outer edges of the a cell that allow them to move Eukaryotic Cell cells that contain a nucleus where DNA is contained I Very compartmentalized and complex Organelles different parts of a cell they all have different functions that allow the cell to survive Enzymes molecules that speed up or slow down reactions Nucleus the part of a cell where the genetic information DNA is located Endomembrane System the communication between different organelles in a cell the nuclear envelope Golgi Apparatus and a lot of vesicles Vesicles like a plastic bag it wraps around molecules to keep them closed off from the cytoplasm Cytoskeleton helps to keep the shape and helps cells move around easier they are links of protein fibers Very large often the most noticeable in the cell Contains chromatin Chromatin made of DNA and protein Chromosomes the rod like structure formed when chromatin coils and shrinks Nucleolus the very dark structure inside the nucleus rRNA ribosomal RNA is made Nuclear Envelope the part of a cell the double membrane that separates the cytoplasm and phospholipids BIO 100 Ribosomes Inside of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells The information in the RNA which is from the nucleolus is used to produce a polypeptide chain Crucial for the survival of a cell Endoplasmic Reticulum a very complex system made up of channels and saccules flattened vesicles Rough ER contains ribosomes on the side of the membrane that faces the cytoplasm I They produce polypeptides I Creates transport vesicles that take proteins to different parts of the cell Smooth ER does not contain the ribosomes like the Rough ER I They produce lipids I Their function can vary depending on the particular cell Golgi Apparatus a stack of saccules resemble a stack of pancakes I First it is the receiver of the vesicles from the ERs I The molecules are changed when they move through the saccules I The Golgi Apparatus sorts the newly changed molecules into appropriate groups and sends them to their next destination Lysosome made by the Golgi Apparatus vesicles that digest molecules the stomach of the cell Vacuoles sort of like vesicles in that they resemble a plastic bag but vacuoles are much bigger than vesicles I Used as storage I All plant cells have a Central Vacuole I Only few animal cells have vacuoles Chloroplasts takes solar energy to produce carbohydrates I Only found in plants and algae I Very big organelle I Three membrane system I Stroma big inside space which contain enzymes and thylakoids I Thylakoids pancake like sacs I Granum the stack of thylakoids I Thylakoid Space the space inside the thylakoid Photosynthesis carbohydrates are produced by the use of energy from the sun carbon dioxide and water Mitochondria they make ATP by breaking down carbohydrates I Significantly smaller than chloroplasts I Frequently change shape I They have a double membrane O O BIO 100 I Cristae the folds inside the inner membrane Cellular Respiration a reaction where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is used to break down carbohydrates Cytoskeleton protein filaments and tubules that go from the nucleus to the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells I Helps keep shape I With the help of motor proteins it allows the cell and organelles to move I Very quickly made and broken down I Most important motor proteins are myosin kinesin and dynein Microtubules like a log all hollow cylinders made of links of tubulin dimers I They can easily change their length by breaking the link through the process by the centrosome helps keep everything organized Intermediate Filaments medium in size look like a rope made from proteins I Helps support to cell Actin Filaments 2 links of globular actin monomers that are wrapped around each other forming a helix I Again help support the cell by creating a web under the plasma membrane Centrioles they are very short and made of microtubules I Plants and fungi do not have centrioles I Can help organize microtubules Cilia work like a whip extremely stiff and short I Crucial for reproduction and respiratory health Flagella work like a whip movement is similar to a snake and they are very long I For example sperm Cell Wall only found in plant cells helps to keep the shape and structure of the cell Plasmodesmata narrow channels that go through the cell wall How do Animal Cells keep their Shape O Extracellular Matrix ECM made of fibrous proteins and polysaccharides that form a mesh around the cell Adhesion Junctions very sturdy but flexible allowing movement of the cells such as for the heart Tight Junctions create a zipper affect creating a wall such as for the bladder Gap Junctions allow cells to communicate allows ions and molecules to travel from one cell to another via a channel I They type ofjunction needed depends on what the cells need