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Week 2 notes

by: Brennan Gappy

Week 2 notes Psyc 313

Brennan Gappy
GPA 4.0
Child Development
David Ferrier

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About this Document

Sorry some of it is out of order, I was in a rush but here they are :)
Child Development
David Ferrier
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brennan Gappy on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 313 at George Mason University taught by David Ferrier in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Child Development in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/09/15
Child Development Week 2 Prenatal development 0 Nature and Nurture both play parts in prenatal development The fetus is an active player itself in prenatal development Continuity exists between what goes on before and what goes on after birth and infants demonstrate what has happened to them in the womb 0 Parents Women have all the eggs they will ever have at birth Coffee can promote healthy fast sperm Smoking drinking and hot baths can be detrimental to sperm Gametes have all the necessary genetic material 0 Prenatal development begins at the cellular levels with conception an egg from the mother and sperm from the father unite The sperm and the egg together form a zygote The zygote multiplies and divides its way through the fallopian tube Meiosis The 23rd pair of chromosomes is always the sex determining one o Chromosomes Genetic material that is created by the mother and the father Genes are a set of instructions that tell us to become a human Each gene is in charge of a speci c trait eye color height hair color etc o 1 day after fertilization egg divides chromosomes reproduce making a copy of the entire genetic code 0 First two weeks Ball of cells turns into a blastocyst hollow ball of cells 0 Outer ring becomes placenta Inner ring becomes the embryo By the end of week two the blastocyst reaches the uterine wall Women may not know they are pregnant 0 28 weeks inner cell mass differentiates into three layers 0 top layer nervous system 0 middle layer bones circulatory system internal organs outer layer digestive system lungs urinary tract glands Embryonic cell mass folds into a long tube top becomes head bottom becomes trunk Amniotic sac protects the baby Placenta transfers oxygen and nutrients to fetus through the umbilical cord and lters out waste 911 weeks Baby becomes a fetus Baby has developed a kicking re ex You can see the basic heart structure heart ribs and brain 12 weeks end of 1st trimester Less risk of a miscarriage 50 of fertilized eggs survive all the way The sex of the fetus can be noticed at 12 weeks Period of miscarriage 13 of babies don t survive 23 happen before a fetus is detectable Babies develop grasping re ex BY WEEK 9 ALL INTERNAL ORGANS HAVE DEVELOPED 18 weeks The digestive system is active the baby swallows amniotic uid Eyes are shut until 24 weeks 0 First sign of the blinking re ex Babies can suck thumbs Week 20 Ultrasound technician will check for numerous things such as Spina Bi da which occurs when the neural tube doesn t close like it is supposed to and Cleft lip Week 24 The fetus has the ability to survive out of the womb Mothers usually don t have morning sickness anymore Senses in baby develop Babies can hear muf ed sounds Week 26 Startle re exes emerge Left or righthandedness develops in womb O Possible at this time to transfer stress from mom to baby Can hear babies heartbeat by putting ear up to mommy s tummy Heart and lungs are fully developed Week 28 Eyes can open and undergo REM sleep Weight is tripled Babies can detect their mothers speech Brain is making memories Neural activity is similar to that of a newborn Fetal experiences 0 O Habituation decrease in response to repeated of continued s ua ons Things that baby is used to the less new it is to baby the less baby will react to it ie mothers voice Infants prefer tastes that are familiar from prenatal expedences Ex if mom ate a lot of strawberries baby may prefer strawberries Fetus prefers moms voice The zygote undergoes cell division meiosis cell migration cells start to differentiate cell differentiation cells go to the correct parts of the body to create organs and cell death the cells not needed for organs die these processes continue through prenatal development When the zygote becomes implanted on the uterine wall it becomes an embryo From that point on it is dependent on the mother to get nourishment and oxygen and to get rid of waste products through the placenta Fetal behavior begins at 56 weeks after conception that becomes increasingly complex and organized into patterns Later the fetus practices behaviors vital to living independently like swallowing and a form of intrauterine breathing The fetus experiences stimulation from both inside the womb and from outside forces Both fetuses and newborns can discriminate between familiar and new sounds especially in speech and can also exhibit taste preferences developed in the womb taste comes from amniotic sac The most common fate of a fertilized egg is spontaneous abortion miscarriage Hazardous tetragons include age nutritional status physical health behavior use of legal or illegal drugs and emotional state 0 The birth experience 0 At about 38 weeks after conception the baby is ready to 0 be born The behavior of the fetus helps to initiate the birth process Being squeezed through the birth canal has great bene cial effects on the newborn such as preparing the infant to take his or her rst breath Hormones are released to help with the delivery adrenaline When is it time Painful contractions close together False labor pains can go away with water and uids Amniotic sac water breaks Vaginal delivery Faster recovery lnducing labor and Pitocin a natural hormone that speeds up the labor Natural vs Epidural a pain medication Csection Gets baby out quickly It is surgery and requires a long recovery time Cultural practices surrounding birth vary greatly and related to the goals and values emphasized by the culture Harmful agents to baby 0 O O Tetragons environmental agents that can potentially harm fetuses Timing is crucial in determining the effects of the tetragons Sensitive periods 12 weeks baby is a zygote 29 weeks baby is an embryo and forming organs and body parts making this the most sensitive period 1238 weeks baby is a fetus and already has organs developed The higher the dose and the more sensitive the period the worse the effects will be on the baby Cigarettes Stunted growth Low birth rate Increased risk for SIDS sudden infant death syndrome 0 Alcohol 0 O Most common tetragon Leading cause of fetal brain injury Can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 0 Intellectual disability facial deformities small head eyes close together no vertical ridge between nose and upper lip low body weight and behavior problems lHegaldrugs 37 of women use illegal drugs during pregnancy Marijuana Most commonly used illegal drug 0 Memory problems learning and visual skill problems Cocaine Cognitive and social de cits Emotional regulation problems 0 Baby has to go through withdraw too Maternal factors Low folic acid can increase risk of Spina Bi da Teenagers and older mothers have an increased risk of miscarriage and low birth weight babies STDS Herpes is the number 1 STD Anxiety and depression Vitamins and nutrients available 0 The newborn infant O O O Newborns states of arousal range from deep sleep to active sleep The amount of time infants spend in active sleep varies greatly REM sleep compensates for the lack of visual stimulation that results from the darkness of the womb and for the fact that newborns spend a lot of their time with their eyes shut asleep The sound of a baby crying can be very aversive and varies from each baby and parents spend a lot of time trying to relieve the baby from distress hunger frustration pain The infant mortality rate is high compared to that of other developed countries It is much higher for babies born into low SES families lnfants born weighing less than 5 amp12 pounds are considered to be low birth weight Low birth rate infants are at risk for many developmental problems The lower the birth weight the greater the risk of lasting problems 0 Many intervention programs have been designed to improve the lives of low birth babies but the success depends on the number of risk factors that threaten the baby 0 The multiple risk model refers to the fact that infants with a number of risk factors have a greater risk of having continued development problems Poverty is a high risk to development it is associated with negative factors 0 Some children display resilience even in the face of chaHenges Resilience results from personal characteristics an from responsive care from someone


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