Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes Anthro 105
Popular in Principles of Biological Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Altmann on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro 105 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Sept 9 2015 Evolution Evolutionary History All humans are a product of their evolutionary history and a product of their individual life history Evolutionary History Gradual change in our characteristics over successive generations Long sequences of biological changes anatomy morphology intelligence behavior and culture Ours began approximately 68mya Each species has its own unique evolutionary history 6mya first hominins 20mya first hominids 55mya first primates 200mya first mammals 46bya beginning of the Earth Hominids Group consisting of all Great Apes and their immediate ancestors Hominins Group of hominids more closely related to humans than other Great Apes Anatomical Classification vs Genetic classification Page 142 of the textbook to see the difference between the two Lineage A sequence of species each of which is considered to have evolved from its predecessor This is where we track the sequences of biological changes in a species DNA is the biological factor that codes for and affects an individual s evolutionary history Determined at conception in an individual from your parents but also a consequence of your lineage so the DNA of your ancestors Common Ancestor The species at a fork in a lineage Individual Life History The series of changes undergone by an organism in their lifetime Refers to the time from when an individual is born until they die Can have an effect on your biology Environmental Factors Diet Activity patterns Socioeconomic status When and where we live Culture Biology Affected Morphology Height and weight Health and disease Fitness Life expectancy and reproduction Biological and Environmental factors act together Example Usain Bolt being the fastest man in the world Good genes Diet Exercise Opportunity PreDarwin Common view of 17th century Young earth 6000 years Species unchangeable Species divinely created Scientific views of 18th19th century Old earth millions of years Species change overtime Evolution James Hutton Slow geological processes wind and water erosion showing that the Earth had changed over a much longer time than 6000 years Changing landscape Uniformitarianism these slow processes happening in the present also were happening in the past Charles Lyell Amounted evidence that the Earth must be millions of years old through geology like Hutton Robert Hooke Paleontologist Fossil wood was once alive due to similarities between living and fossilized wood Fossilization must take longer than a few thousand years Seen as a window into our past George Cuvier Found that organisms can go extinct due to finding fossils of species that were no longer present Different fossils in different geological strata Extinction by catastrophic events Stumbled into the concept of evolution Darwin 0 HMS Beagle voyage 5 year voyage Where he collected data and samples from the places he stopped on the journey Looking for as many fossils as he could find This trip is the basis for his theory of natural selection 0 Natural Selection Some biological traits are more advantageous than others Individuals With such traits reproduce more than those Without more reproductive success The offspring inherit the advantageous trait These traits become more common in a population Example A cheetah s speed is advantageous because it is easier to catch prey and easier to evade predators The faster cheetah is able to reproduce more due to having more food and therefore energy Their offspring also have a higher speed 0 The Galapagos Islands and Darwin s nches The birds from island to island are different particularly the size and shape of their beaks This is due to the different foods available on each of the islands Thick beak seeds and nuts Thin beak fruits and berries