Lecture 2 Notes
Lecture 2 Notes ANTH 1002-10
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rylie McMillan on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1002-10 at George Washington University taught by Roy R. Grinker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Sociocultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
What is Society 1961 survey in Lire 600 intellectuals asked what living intellectual had the most influence on science andideas Claude LeviStrauss 448 Foucault 83 Lacan 51 Simone de beauvoir Scholars work valued by how much they influence fields outside of their own Neat line from Durkheim gt Mauss gt LeviStrauss Durkheim How do societies stay together Mechanical solidarity people stay together out of resemblance characterized by as little difference as possible between its members most people dothink things in the same way diversity is quickly quashed through discipline mostly industrial societies Organic solidarity complex societies cohere out of symbiosis the parts of a living organism don39t resemble each other but each performs a unique function that makes it indispensable pockets of mechanical solidarity people are free to believe what they want as long as they stay in a particular range of behavior collective consciousness every community has a body of beliefs and sentiments common to the average members of society which came first social categories or the mental faculty to create or apprehend them Why dont groups just split apart the individual has their own desires and will sacrifice of individual desires to the interest of the community any time you try to explain a social phenomenon with any theory of the individual then that explanation will be lost all boils down to what is in the interest of society Montesquieu gt law serves society more than the citizens and the citizen more than the individual everything serves the society Durkheim wanted to know the vehicle of how society holds power over the individual first thought gt religion maybe religion is the way to go about things because every society has a religion the collective consciousness has to be crystallized into communicable ideas gt religion does that when people are going to worship god they39re not really worshipping god they are worshipping themselves god is a mirror of society worshipping god worshipping society leave with a renewed sense of solidarity with the group Marcel Mauss how do groups stay together solidarity is achieved by means of gift exchange gt reciprocity reciprocity conforms to social needs and imperatives steer a theoretical course midway between his uncles metaphysics and the base economic rationality we just do things that are economically beneficial and rational reciprocity the exchange of good and services of approximate equal value between two parties generalized reciprocity a type of exchange between closely related people without expectation of return balanced reciprocity a mode of exchange between loosely related individuals or groups expectation that something of equal value will be offered in return we give gifts because the kindness of our hearts require a vehicle Gifts are obligatory facts of society that are not benign there39s a semantics of gift giving Mauss s two main contributions 1 exchanges involve more than goods and services they involve people and symbols and meaning 2 empirical method in ethnographic research KNOW ABOUT THE POTLATCH How does the hau work in the giving of taonga page 11
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