Chemistry Chapter 1 Notes
Chemistry Chapter 1 Notes CHEM 1030 - 002
Popular in Fundamentals Chemistry I
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robert Kessinger on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Walter Felix Casper in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Lectures notes?? Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Chapter 1 Notes Classifying Matter Matter is made up of substances of mixtures of substances Substance a form of matter that has de nite composition and properties States of Matter There are 3 states of matter Solid Liquid Gas Mixtures A combination of 2 or more substances that still retain their identities Ex Mixing Water and Olive Oil Homogeneous vs Heterogeneous uniform vs discernible Homo sugar and water Hetero iron and water Separation of Mixtures Filtration ex making coffee Distillation ex salt water differences in boiling points Paper ex chromatography differences in solubility of solvents Properties of Matter Quantitative vs Qualitative Physical properties Chemical Properties Extensive and Intensive Physical Properties Can be observed and measured without changing identity coor meltingboiling points density Heat ice and liquid water occurs Phase Change physical change Chemical Properties Chemical composition changes due to a chemical change or chemical process ron rusts with water and air iron rusts no longer iron its rust iron oxide Extensive and Intensive Properties Extensive property dependent on the amount of matter massvoume ntensive property independent on the amount of matter density temperature Scienti c Measurement The world standard in science is the SI unit nternational system of units Length meterm Mass Kilogramkg Time seconds Eectric Current ampereA Temperature KelvinK Amount of substance moemo Luminous intensity candeacd Pre xes for SI Tera T1x10quot12 Giga G1x10quot9 Mega M1x10quot6 Kio k1x10quot3 standard measurementm Deci d1x10quot1 Centi c1x10quot2 Milli m1x10quot3 Micro uwith tail at front1x10quot6 Nano n1x10quot9 Pico p1x10quot12 Mass weight not equal to mass force exerted by an object due to gravity mass is a measure of the amount of matter 1kg1000g1x10 3g Temperature Celsius C and Kelvin K 0 K 27315 C absolute zero Lowest temperature theoretically possible K C 27315 Chemistry does not use Fahrenheit Volume Required units but not standalone Volume m3 length x width x height 1x10393m31L 1cm31mL Density The ratio of mass to volume dmN Common units based on state of matter gcm3 solids gmL liquids gL gases Uncertainty in Measurement Exact numbers De ned values Determined by counting 1 dozen 12 objects lnexact numbers Any measurement Devices andor user are unable to measure exact Length mass time speed Signi cant gures are the meaningful digits in a reported number The last digit in a measured number is referred to as the uncertain digit Again we estimate one more digit than we are certain of As a rule estimate between the markings and the estimated digit is the uncertain digit Signi cant Figures 1 Any nonzero digit is signi cant 2 Zeros between nonzero digits are signi cant 3 Zeros to the left of the rst nonzero digit are not signi cant 4 Zeros to the right of the last nonzero digit are signi cant if a decimal is present 5 Zeros to the right of the last nonzero digit in a number that does not contain a decimal point may or may not be signi cant Ex 1121 4 digits 305 3 5008 4 00023 2 0000001 1 1200 4 100 123ambiguous Calculations with Measured Numbers 1 Addition and subtraction Keep the same number of decimal places as the number with the fewest 2 Multiplication and division Keep the same number of signi cant gures as the number with the fewest 3 Does not apply to exact numbers 4 Round after multisteps to limit error Accuracy and Precision Accuracy how close to the true value Precision how close each measurement is to one another Napoleon39s Buttons Peppers Nutmeg and Cloves Huge motive for exploration and expansion in 15th century Highly valued and enjoyed by elite royalty throughout Europe The disguised the taste of rotting and spoiled meat
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