Intro to biology first week of notes
Intro to biology first week of notes BIOL-L 105
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Scott on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-L 105 at Indiana University taught by T.J. Sullivan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
9914 Bio 105 Dr T Sullivan 9914 4 What does it mean to be alive 9914 Characteristics of life I Energy 1 All living thing need to capture and use energy to live and reproduce I Ultimate source is the sun 9914 4 Characteristics of life I Cells 1 Living things consist of membranebound units basic building blocks 1 Cell membranes regulate passage into and out of the cell 1 Common line of descent 9914 Characteristics of life I Information Must have hereditarv genetic information Coded in genes Continuity of generations 9914 9914 Characteristics of life I Replication Living things make new versions of themselves 9914 Characteristics of life I Replication Living things make new versions of themselves 9914 Characteristics of life I Evolution Living things change over time Adaptations fit with their environment 9914 9914 How is science done I Scientific questions Need to be answerable How and Why questions are generally better than What or Where questions ILook for answers using the scientific method 9914 How is science done I Scientific Method Observation question Hypothesis Experimentobservationtest Prediction Conclusion IIf hypothesis and I experiment then prediction 9914 What is a hypothesis IPotential answer to your question Needs to be testable Should be based on reasonable expectations 9914 A simple example I Observation My car won t start 9914 9914 A simple example IObservation My car won t start IQuestionWhy won t my car start 9914 A simple example I Observation My car won t start I Question Why won t my car start IHypothesis The battery is dead 9914 A simple example IObservation My car won t start IQuestionWhy won t my car start IHypothesis The battery is dead IExperiment Jump start the car l 9914 A simple example I Observation My car won t start I Question Why won t my car start IHypothesis The battery is dead IExperiment Jump start the car IIf my car s battery is dead and I jump start the car I predict my car will start 9914 63 I 2 Another simple example IQWhy does my pen fall IH The table acts as a pen magnet IExp I ll let go of my pen 10 times over the table and count the number of times it falls to the table IIf the table acts as a pen magnet and I let go of my pen above the table it will fall towards the table more often than it doesn t 9914 9914 li zMy pen data Pen dropping experiment Fell towards the table Fell towards the ceiling 9914 li zPen data lWhat is my conclusion IThe hypothesis that the table acts as a pen magnet is supported 9914 Hypotheses are never proven IWe always state the hypothesis is supported lAlways the possibility for new information or better hypotheses IWhat would be a better hypothesis about why the pen falls 9914 77 6 Scientific theories l The formal scientific definition of theory is quite different from the everyday meaning of the word It refers to a comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a vast body of evidence Many scientific theories are so well established that no new evidence is likely to alter them substantially For example no new evidence will demonstrate that the Earth does not orbit around the sun heliocentric theory or that living things are not made of cells cell theory that matter is not composed of atoms or that the surface of the Earth is not divided into solid plates that have moved over geological timescales the theory of plate tectonics One of the most useful properties of scientific theories is that they can be used to make predictions about natural events or phenomena that have not yet been observed National Academy of Science 9914 9914 V Communicating scientific data 78 lGraphs are a great way to summarize lots of data simply in a visual form ISuppose you are interested in comparing the average heights of 3 different volleyball teams Teams A B and C IWhich team has the largest mean height 9914 I Results height in inches 72 71 75 74 72 68 65 65 61 68 64 72 66 70 76 9914 I Results H H Mun Hoight Group I my IeU 9914 9914 4 Results liar IIOIIDn g FIE4 m NW 4 Results I Box plot 3 Box shows 25 75 percentiles 3 Line inside box is the median I Half data above half below 9914 4 83 Results I Box plot 3 Whiskers are 0 25 and 75 100 percentiles or 3 Whiskers can be 10 W 25 and 75 90 percentiles with outliners shown as dots 9914 4 Results uannuqm 9914 9914 Mean average vs median IBoth describe central tendency of the data Mean add them up divide by the number of data points Median Value Where 12 the data is above 12 is below 9914 Mean average vs median Data A Data B l l 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 100 lDataA Meanl234 55 Mean3 9914 87 Mean average vs median Data A Data B l l 2 2 I Data A 3 3 Median 3 4 4 5 100 9914 88 Mean average vs median Data A Data B l l 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 100 lDataB Meanl234 lOO5 Mean 22 9914 9914 Mean average vs median Data A Data B l l 2 2 I Data B 3 3 D Median 3 4 4 5 100 9914 Mean average vs median I Which method better 22 describes the data 9914 Mean average vs median I What would a bar chart look like 22 I What would a box plot look like 9914 Canvas box plots I Under grades D For graded assignments click on on right hand side a Box plot of class grades With mean high amp low scores blue square for your score 9914 9914 Ch 2 Water and Carbon the Chemical Basis of Life 9914 3 Key concepts for Ch 2 lVariation in molecular bonds a Polarity I Traits of H20 lAcids and bases 9914 5 What are living things made of amm o m comm Comm Km Pivva wow J v Watch a ducky 9914 Boiling points lBoiling adding energy to a liquid as individual molecules gain energy they move apart liquid becomes a gas lGenerally boiling points are proportional to the molecular weight of the substance 9914 10 9914 3 Boiling points Boiling points m m 2 HZ 2 Hz 18 18 28 N2 28 N2 32 oz 32 Oz 44 CO2 subhmanon 44 002 sulghma on 18 5 CC pomt pomt 9914 9914 Boiling points Boiling points 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 4O 45 5O 2 HZ 25287 C 50 A O 18 a 100 3 150 28 N2 19579 C g 200 32 02 18295 C 250 002 sublimation o 44 point 785 C 300 9914 9914 11 9914 4 What should the boiling point of a molecule with the MW of 18 be round to nearest 5 Rank Responses 1 l 2 2 3 4 5 6 Other Values 240 200 Value Matches 0 4 Boiling points m How great is water lVery important for life 75 of average living cell IBecause water is polar it interacts with other polar molecules and charged molecules lWater is a great solvent Lots of substances can dissolve in it 2 HZ 252839Z C 18 H20 100 C 28 N2 1953919 C 32 Oz 18295 C 44 C02 sulalimation 485 C pomt 9914 it Hydrogen bonding a Water is polar b Hydrogen bonds form Electrons are pulled toward oxygen between water molecules 12 Hydrogen bonding IPolar molecules and ions can dissolve easily in water a Polar molecules and ions dissolve readily in water Salt in absence of water 434 7 Salt dissolved in water 7 130 9914 Hydrogen bonding I Nonpolar molecules won t dissolve in water b Nonpolar molecules do not dissolve in water A 3 M A A 5 I I a v 397 ii My 1 34 4 straw b M A I 4 4 w 131 Other consequences of hydrogen bonding I Adhesion interaction between water and a solid I Helps with moving water against gravity in trees Other consequences of hydrogen bonding I Surface tension Hydrogen bonding helps water resist 739 force 133 13 The basilisk lizard 134 9914 9914 l39l L US Other consequences of hydrogen bonding I When water freezes it forms a crystal lattice I Ice is less dense than liquid water a In icel water molecules form a crystal lattice 39 Y Y Y 135 H I U Other consequences of hydrogen we quota wuw Swiv v xK Ice layer 136 l39l Other consequences of hydrogen bonding I High heat capacity IWater can absorb or lose energy without changing temperature too much Helps maintain body temperature Affects climate 137 14 Ocean currents Z ma au 0 mammas gmwm manunanh I mum 138 9914 15
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