Lecture Notes Week 2
Lecture Notes Week 2 HIST 100
Popular in History of Western Civilization
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cailyn Notetaker on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 100 at George Mason University taught by Scala in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization in History at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
History of Western Civ Lecture Wk 2 9815 602 PM Rise of the West The Emergence of Hebrew Monotheism Democracy in the Greek Polis and Hellenism The Ancient Israelites and the Ancient Greeks Two key aspects of development of Western Civilization takes shape and makes it different from ancient Near East traditions Hebrew religion is transformed from typical Near Eastern religion into transcendent ethicsbased universalistic religion Ancient Greek society starts out having Near Eastern characteristics but because of geographic and political circumstances it emerges as something new and different The Twelve Tribes of Israel 12001050 BCE polytheistic developed agricultural system Philistia known for trading system but posed a threat 12 tribes form to be Israel in North and Judah in South 0 Rivalry between the two leaders 0 North wins David and becomes leader for national resistance against the Philistines Struggle to find political and religious unity David chooses Jerusalem as politicalreligious capital of kingdom 0 Stores art of the covenant there Houses 10 commandments 0 Easy for David to have political and religious power Centralization of religion pushes Israelites more towards monotheism Solomon builds First Temple which houses the arc of the covenant o Becomes central point for Israelite religious worship 0 Pushes people toward monotheism 0 Solomon has very heavy handed rule over the people Solomon dies and the unified kingdom revolts and splits back into North and South 0 Decentralization of religion and moves back further to polytheism Assyrian empire conquers Northern Israel Kingdom and Southern Judah Kingdom becomes dependent of Assyrian empire 0 Religious prophets stress that Israelites must go back to worshiping just Yahweh and be monotheistic and they were conquered for disobeying this and being polytheistic Judah s leader tries to purify Hebrew religion through more loyalty and stricter practices The Babylonian Captivity 0 Once Israelites were properly worshiping Yahweh and fulfilled the prophecy they would be released by the Babylonian captivity Changes in Hebrew Religion 0 After fall of Babylon Persian King exiled Israelites and return to Judah Practice religion freely o Israelites began as polytheistic and end up as a truly monotheistic state worshiping Yahweh 0 Religion and politics become less intertwined 0 Moves from ritual oriented religion to transcendent ethics based universalistic religion within framework of Hebrew Religion Development of Ancient Greece Mycenaean Greece 14001100 BCE o Wiped out by fall of Bronze Age Dark age after fall of Mycenaean Greece 1150800 BCE 0 Cultural immobility o Societal stagnation 0 Regression in social structure 0 Lack of trade and relations 0 Setting for Greek epics Odyssey Archaic Greece 800480 BCE o Emergence of Polis Greek city states 0 Return of writing and literacy 0 Increase in trading and more interaction with other people in Mediterranean Interaction with Phoenicians through sea trade Greece borrow Phoenician alphabet Growth in population Social and political change occupational differentiation More complex social structure As society becomes more complex9 need a more complex political system and organization Polis bans together Greek communities a Participation of citizenry in how the city state is run Different polis n Athens democracy trade a Sparta military powerhouse n Milatus commercial cultural and military powerhouse a Cultural and governmental differences but still remained unified as citystates through shared elements and values a Pan Hellenism Pan spreading across entire area Hellenism all Greek values and culture Greeks become known traders and sea farers n Establish colonies around Mediterranean a Run into hostile powers conflict with Persian empire Persian empire is big dogquot at the time n Cyrus the Great I Empire spans entire ancient middle east n Skilled imperial administration a Strong centralized burocracy Ionian revolt of 499 BCE n Milatus citizens and other Greek s are going to continue to receive help against Persians n Persians attack Greek mainland 0 Greek warriors were efficient against Persian warriors n Suspect Persians to try attacking by sea 0 Athens transformed into navy power of Greek world a Battle of Thermopolis Spartans against Persians killing off many Persians n Mainland Greece is no longer under direct threat of Persian empire 0 Ushers in Golden Age of Classical Greece 0 Golden Age of Classical Greece 4BOBCE o Flourish in arts philosophy culture etc that lead to development in western civilization 0 Political presided over by Pericles for most of period Promoted democracy Patron of arts science literature Politically unsuccessful with relations with other Greek citystates Triumph of Greek ideals identity human dignity and freedoms 0 Greek Parthenon is built along with other Greek architecture 0 Philosophical speculation vs traditional religious practices Sought explanations for what they saw in the world Formulate rational theories for a physical universe rather than of the Gods Remove supernatural element of how the world works Man is the measure of all things Socrates beliefs I Socratic questioning a Critical investigation a Humans ability to reason will lead to figure out what is right and what is wrong a Philosophical system based on absolute truth 0 Peloponnesian Wars Tensions between Greek citystates Athens is largely destroyed Sparta can t retain its power against Athens Collapse of Golden Age Emergence of Alexander the Great Macedon and leader Alexander the Great defeat Athens and takes over all of Greece Alexander most successful military leaders Alexander inaugurates new era of western civilization by spreading Greek culture 0 Battle of Gaugemella Alexander the Great vs Persian Empire Ends Persian empire 0 Alexander claims huge territory Doesn t establish centralized government When Alexander dies the lack of unification causes division of empire TAKE AWAY Ancient Israelite religion and ancient Greek society grow from Near Eastern roots but each becomes something fundamentally new and different In transition from wandering pastoralists to national kingdom to exile Israelite religion morphs into transcendent ethicsbased universalistic Hebrew monotheism Greek model takes shape encompassing republican form of government individual libery humanistic outlook invention of philosophy artistic innovation scientific investigation Hellenistic Greekish period both a departure from golden age of classical Greece and a bridge to ancient Rome which will also serve as framework for continued development of Hebrew monotheism 9815 602 PM 9815 602 PM
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