Chapter 1 outline
Chapter 1 outline PSY 260
Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Janina Jolley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Development A Physical 1 Bodyorgan growth and functioning systems B Cognitive 1 Continuation and changes in mental processes C Psychosocial 1 Changes in emotions personality traits and roles Historical Changes A Childhood 1 17th century child viewed differently 2 Protected and nurtured 3 Medieval Europe treated them as miniature adults B Adolescence 1 Recognized in 19th and 20th century 2 Child labor laws C Emerging Adulthood 1 De ned 20th and 21St century 2 Period between ages 1825 D Middle Age 1 Fewer children see children grow and leave home 2 Good health peak of life E Old Age 1 Retirement 2 Life expectancy increases in last part of 20th century Nature vs Nurture A Nature 1 Maturation and Genes B Nurture 1 Changes due to environment physical and social 2 Emphasis on learning C Nature Nurture 1 Changes in development are a combination Beginning A Charles Darwin Child development and evolution Baby biographies Major in theology Very religious quotGod was the puppet masterquot Darwin39s Voyage a Voyage of HMMS Beagle 18311836 Galapagos Islands b 20 years later quotOrigin of Speciesquot Finches B G Stanley Hall 1 1St president of American psychological association 2 Collect more data on larger broader scale Perspective A Development life long process 1 Development is continuous throughout life B Development multidirectional 1 Not all development in every person moves forward some stay the same or decline PWF E VI VII W C Development gain and loss 1 Gain and loss can be seen at each stage 2 Occur as a result of the other D Development lifelong plasticity 1 Capacity to change 2 Positive or negative 3 Cognitive bene ts rooted in neuroplasticity E Development historicalcultural context 1 Hard economic times 2 Children did not get enough attention and behavior was affected 3 Adolescents were better off than younger children F Development multiply in uenced 1 Product of Nature vs Nurture 2 In uences form biological environment and experience G Development must be studied by multiple disciplines 1 Must be studied from many areas to get a wellrounded understanding The Scienti c Method A Theory 1 Set of concepts meant to explain a phenomena 2 Generate speci c predictions B Hypothesis 1 Prediction 2 Able to be tested and proved or disproved C Keys to a good theory 1 Internally Consistent 2 Falsi able 3 Supported by data Sample Selection A Generalized study group 1 Population where sampleconclusions are drawn 2 Random samples Data Collection A Verbal Reports 1 Interviews survey etc 2 Can39t be used with infants young children and others who can39t read or speak well B Behavioral Observations 1 Naturalistic Observation a Observing people in their natural environment b Used more in for child development infrequent or too frequent and hard to pin point cause 2 Structured Observation a Give speci c task or stimuli C Physiological Measurements 1 Study electrical activity in brain hormone levels 2 fMRI measures increase blood ow to active brain areas 3 hard to fake results good for infants Research A Case Study XI XII 1 2 In depth examination of an individual Use in people with rare conditions where large groups of similar people are hard to nd B Experimental Method 1 2 Independent variable a Variable that39s manipulated Dependent variable a The affected variable C Deloache study features 1 2 3 Random Assignment a Participants different experimental conditions Manipulation of independent a Different groups with different experiences assessed Experimental control a All factors controlled except independent D Correlational Method 1 2 3 Determine if two or more variables are related Do not random assign Correlation coef cient a One score systematically associated with score of another variable b Symbo r Value 100 to 100 Directionality problem a Direct of causeeffect relation reverse 3rCI Variable problem a Association between two variables could be caused by a 3rd variable MetaAnalysis A De nition 1 Research method in which the results of multiple studies addressing the same question are all synthesized to produce overaII conclusions Developmental Research designs A Crosssectional designs 1 2 3 4 People of different age groups are compared See how age groups differ Age effects a Relation to age and a particular development Cohort effects a Born as member of a generationtime b In uences of sociocultural environment on development B Longitudinal designs 1 2 One cohort assessed over time Timely costly hard to keep participants C Sequential designs 1 2 Combines crosssectional and longitudinal Which agerelated trends truly development in nature Research rights A Informed Consent 1 All participants should be completely informed 2 Have right to not participate or drop out of study B Debrie ng 1 Generally explain experiment beforehand unless it jeopardizes the results C Protection from harm 1 Cannot harm physically or psychologically 2 Extra federal protection for children D Con dentiality 1 Ethical responsibility 2 Cannot give info about an individual
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