Poli Sci 180: Chapter 1 Notes Goldstein and Pevehouse
Poli Sci 180: Chapter 1 Notes Goldstein and Pevehouse Pol 180
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle wilde on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Pol 180 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Mert Kartal in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see international relations in Political Science at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Globalisation International Relations and Daily Life nternational Relations IR concerns the relationship among the world39s governments Closely connected with other actors EG International Organisations with other social structures and processesgeographical and historical influences these elements power globalisation 2 Hallmarks of globalisation Expanding communications technology Arab SpringFacebook and Integrated markets crash of US home mortgage market impacted our lives It is internationalising us The choices we make in our daily lives ultimately affect the world we live in Core Principles One key problem How can a group 2 or more countries serve its collective interests when doing so requires its members to forgo their individual interests Colective goods problem problem of how to provide something that benefits all the members regardless of what each member contributes to it Dominance reciprocity and identitypossible solutions to getting individuals to cooperate for the common good without central authority to make them do so Dominance solves the problem by establishing a power hierarchy social conflicts are automatically resolved in favour of higherranking actor Top actor most adept at forming and maintaining alliances among the group39s more capable members Forces members to contribute to common good Minimizes open conflict Constant oppression resentment Reciprocity rewards behaviour that contributes to the group and punishes behaviour that pursues selfinterests at the expense of the group Lead to downward spiral as each side punishes what it believes to be negative acts by the other Forms basis of most of the norms and institutions in the international system Identity members care about the interests of others in the community enough to sacrifice their own interests to benefit others demonising an out group IR as a field of study practica discipline close connection betw scholars think tanks and policymaking community it is about international politics the decision of gov About foreign actors interdisciplinary relating international politics to economicshistory sociology etc Subfields International Security nternationa political economy trade financial relations among nations m Principa actors are world gov State territorial entity controlled by gov and inhabited by population Answers to no higher authoritysovereignty It is recognised by other states through diplomatic relations population civil society democracy extent where gov controlled by members ofthe population International systemset of relationships among the world39s states structured according to certain rules and patterns of interactions Nonstate actors transnational actors when they operate across international borders IGOs organisations whose members are national gov EG NATO Non governmental organisations private organisations Multinational cooperations companies that span multiple countries Sub state they exist within one country but influence the country39s foreign policy or operate internatonally Level of Analysis a perspective on IR based on a set of similar actorsprocesses that suggests possible explanations to why questions 1 Individual concerns the perception choices and actions of individual human beings 2DomesticStateSocietal aggregations of individuals within states that influence state actions in the international arena 3 Interstateinfluence of the international system on outcomesFocuses on the interactions of state themselves without regard for their internal makeupparticular individuals who lead them 4Global seeks to explain international outcomes in terms of global trends and focus the transcend the interactions of the state themselves Globalisation quotwidening deepening and speeding up of the worldwide interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social lifequot 1North South divide is decreasing educated citizens in liberal democracies are becoming global values 2Skeptical world39s major economies no more integrated today than before WW1NorthSouth gap increasing 3More profound than 2 yet more uncertain than 1 Globalisation decreases authority State power is not weakened or strengthened but transformed to operate new contexts with new tools Changing nt39 Security and IPE Global Geography Globa NorthSouth gap between relatively rich industralised countries of the North and the relatively poor countries of the South is the most important geographical element in global level of analysis Countries with similar economic levels cultures and languages have been kept together where possible The basic structures and principles of IR are rooted in historical developments Two WW shaped character of century key reference point Soviet Union took the greatest share of the 60 million deaths in WW2continues to influence the views of IR in Russia and Eastern Europe The Cold War US and Soviet Unioneach had own ideological mission network of alliances and clients and deadly arsenal of nuclear weapons East West relations during the Cold War relatively stable framework of relations emerged and conflicts never escalated to full out war UN managed to maintain almost universal membership and adherence to basic structure throughout the Cold War Main concern of West Soviet Union gain control of Western Europe Containment US sought to stop the expansion of Soviet influence globally on several levels at oncemilitary political ideological and economic One flaw of US policy to see all regional conflicts through EastWest lenses Lead to support the unpopular proWestern governments in several poor countries EG Vietnam War Seems that both powers US and Soviet Union exaggerated Soviet strength US military strength lead to Soviet Union being bankruptdecades of stagnation lead to Soviet Union imploding due to weakness Cuban Missile Crisis Soviet Union installed mediumrange nuclear missiles in Cuba counter the deployment of US missiles on Soviet Union nuclear war very close to occurring Post Cold War Soviet Union was disintegrating US put up sanctions on Iraq who invaded Kuwait to seize control of oil Gulf War US and allies evicted Iraq39s army from Kuwait Fina collapse of the Soviet Union months after Gulf War15 republics began declaring themselves sovereign states Former republics struggled against economic and financial collapse corruption war and military weakness Western countries provided only limited aid to Russia which lead to lower standards of living World39s great powers overall increased their cooperation The US military campaign in Iraq overthrew a dictator but divided the great powers heightened anti Americanism world widelead to years of insurgency and sectarian violence The NATO campaign in Afghanistan against Taliban influence is to end in 2014 2011 US Special Forces killed Osama Bin Laden Arab Spring uprisings in 20112013 overthrew governments in Tunisia Egypt Libya and Yemen Sparked a brutal civil war in Syria