Notes 9/3 and 9/8 from Chapter 1
Notes 9/3 and 9/8 from Chapter 1 HDFS201010
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Date Created: 09/09/15
What is Development Wednesday September 2 2015 535 PM 0 Why are YOU the way you are 0 Contexts 0 Events 0 Relationships 0 What is Development 0 Change over time NOT possible Wo change 0 Not ALL periods of life are equal regarding change ex adjusting to college life transitioning from dependence to independence unexpected events such as injury cause dramatic change 0 Not ALL change is development 0 Ex changing your socks is not development 0 By definition functional significance takes timepractice to get established Systems Perspectives Wednesday September 2 2015 538 PM 0 Human beings are developing SYSTEMS in the context of other developing systems in uenced by other people 0 Changes individuals develop in uence the community as a whole 0 Changing a component of the system affects ALL parts of the system 0 Domains 0 Biological Psychological Social Spiritual o All of these domains interact Ex a stone in your shoe Biological causes severe pain infection mobility Psychological stress anger change priorities Social miss out on social activities Spiritual interpret new ideas about peacehappiness 0 Ex beginning to crawl Biological motor development musclebrain development Psychological happiness and selfdetermination Social able to look aroundnavigate independently Spiritual changed view of life discovering new things Building an Understanding of Development Thursday September 3 2015 1258 PM So that you can 0 Describe HOW you are in professional terms your developmental status abilities and challenges Explain development WHY you are the way you are in professional terms Predict development WHAT you may become given what and where you are now Control shape development within reason Know and Understand the quotstuff that mattersquot Apply your knowledge as parents teachers nurses social workers friends family etc LIVE wel Facilitate development Different Aspects of Development Multifaceted Thursday September 3 2015 118 PM 0 Growth The physical changes that occur from conception to maturity height weight etc Biological aging The deterioration of organisms that leads inevitably to death functional capacity a Maturation Developmental changes that are programmed primarily by genes rather than caused by learning injury illness or some other life expedence 0 Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential that results from a person39s experiences or practice 0 ln everyday language these terms are used somewhat synonymouslybut in distinctly in Human Development Quantitative o Easily counted or numericized 0 Ex shoe size IQ weight BMI temperature how many kids you have etc Qualitative 0 Having to do with quality of functioning 0 Ex hair color Reaisticaly all development entails BOTH To some degree It39s a matter of focus or emphasis Ex If an infant is taking hisher rst steps the amount of steps heshe takes can translate to quotgoodquot steps or quotbadquot steps The LifeSpan Perspective Thursday September 3 2015 130 PM Some elaborations on Paul Baltes see page 67 Development is a lifelong process Multidimensional o Biopsychosocialspiritual Biological Socioemotional Cognitive Development is multidirectional 0 There are both gains and losses Lifelong plasticity ability to learn and change Historical and cultural embeddedness o Contextualized or situated 0 It39s all relative global history and individualized history Development is in uenced by multiple experiences and circumstances Understanding development requires different disciplines Growth Maintenance and Regulation of Loss adaptive strategies Biology culture and individual factors working together Developmental Manifesto Tuesday September 8 2015 1230 PM Recurring Issues in Human Development NatureNurture 0 Both make signi cant contributions they affect each other 0 Nature is the genetics of a person Nurture is the environment which shapes the person 0 UniversalContext speci c 0 How much of development is universal among everyone 0 How much of it depends on the speci c context or culture of development StabilityChange 0 Do characteristics persist over time remain stable or do they change ContinuityDiscontinuity o Are the changes gradual or abrupt o Incremental or quotstagelikequot o Discontinuities are OFTEN environmentallyevent introduced 0 Ex If you become ill your growth may become stunted and fail to follow the normal curve Compensatory growth your body catches up to the normal curve after it recovers from the loss 0 Ex Can be due to social factors bullying abuse stress that can stunt development 0 Stage theories emphasize the discontinuity of development focus on functional signi cance 0 Informationprocessing theories emphasize continuity focus on quotmore of the samequot changes Developmental Principles 0 There is VARIATION among individuals 0 World records exist that make people unique 0 Ex The highest of children born to one mother was 69 0 Ex The youngest mother was 5 yrs old oldest mother was in her805 Ex High jump record was 29 ft 9 inches 0 Development DOES follow an orderly sequence quotdevelopmental normsquot for age and order 0 Important because it helps you determine if a child is developing normally 0 Implication Normalcy is this normal 0 Timing is this happening too early or too late 0 Other achievementsskills 0 What39s next 0 There are signi cant differences between what is POSSIBLE what is NORMAL and what is DESIRABLE c From a PsychoSocial perspective development is all about 0 SELF to OTHER orientation 0 Developing a sense of self Self Concept Self Esteem Identity sexual spiritual cultural political etc Losing Egocentrism for Allocentrism centering attention on others rather than yourself Theory of Mind different people think differently than you do Empathy Altruism o Maturity moves through intimacy into generativity wanting things to go well beyond you Sharing the self with others to making others39 wellbeing into your focus Take Home Message 0 In our culture we rely heavily on the Scienti c Method 0 Research as an excellent basis for quotknowing thingsquot 0 What are some other ways of knowing that may be just as valid 0 What are some things you KNOW for sure but your knowledge is not based on research at all 0 Faith personal experience intuition love different tastes or likesdislikes c We perceive things somewhat differently ex colors 0 Personal perceptions of eventspeople Research studies are ONE very important but not the ONLY way to quotknowquot something 0 Sometimes we devalue other ways of knowing in our technologically advanced culture 0 A seldom questioned cultural value Research Techniques Tuesday September 8 2015 119 PM 0 Developmental research studies how people change across time and what agerelated variables are associated with those changes Chronological age is often an quotindependent variablequot Contexts of development are often quotindependent variablesquot as well Dependent variables are usually selected physical and psychological measures Some Important Constructs Age cohort and time of measurement are central to every study of human development 0 Age effects differences between individuals due to biological psychological or sociocultural processes across time 0 Age is correlated with but does NOT cause development A cohort can be de ned as a group of people born at the same general time Cohort effects are differences between individuals that are the result of experiences and circumstances that are unique to a person39s particular quotgenerationquot Time of measurement effects are differences due to social environmental historical or other events that have occurred at the time that data are collected 1 Cross Sectional Research Most frequently used Observe people of different ages cohort at the same time Ex compare 3 separate groups of 20 30 and 40 year olds Study of age differences Advantages 0 Quick publish or perish 0 Cover large age span in short time 0 Good overview of development 0 Relatively inexpensive Disadvantages o Tells NOTHING about individual change over time ONLY the age differences 0 Total confound of age and cohort effects Why DO cross sectional research 0 Gives a quick gross interview of developmental trends 1 Longitudinal Research Follow the same group of people across time Used to study age changes Links earlier behavior or developmental status to later outcomes Advantages 0 Studies age changes 0 Early to late linkages o Is truly developmental really just 1 advantage Disadvantages o Timeconsuming o Expensive 0 People can quit lose interest get sick pass away etc o Takes a lot of effort and tracking 0 Publish or perish o Timemeasurement problems 0 History has quotmuch opportunityquot 0 Testretest issues 0 Selection 0 Only studies ONE cohort Then why do it Because it39s there It39s the ONLY WAY to study age changes