Nres/Water 220 Nres 220
Popular in Global Climate Change and Water Resource
Popular in Environmental Science
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle wilde on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nres 220 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Katherine Clancy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Global Climate Change and Water Resource in Environmental Science at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
Reviews for Nres/Water 220
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/09/15
Week 1 Notes on Slides and Audio Maior Concepts in Climate Change Density Mass gramsVolume cubic centimeters Thermodynamic Variable as affected by temperature and pressure expressed as gcm3 as temp increases vol increases pressure increases vol de Convection Physica process caused by temp and density gradients Hotter less dense material rises As it rises it cools and sinksGradient SlopeDifference Greater slope faster velocityfluxmovement Energy moves from high energy state to low energy Temp Moves from high to low Salinity moves from high to low Energy Travel Wave WavelengthFrequency Electromagnetic spectrum Long wavelengthslower energy Shortpenetrate through clouds etc Linear vs Nonlinear Xtime independent Ydependent Fixed change in Y with change in X Nonlinear change in Y increases at constant percentage Sinks Naturalartificial means of absorbing or removing a substance or form of energy from a system Reservoir for storingaccumulating energy Heat sinksto absorb heat to stop overheating Albedo Reflectivity degree to which object reflects lightenergy 0 to 1 Affected by Colour and temperature Surface texture and angle Highereflects more energy lower absorbs more Solar Zenith Angle determined by latitude time of year and time of day Feedback Positive Enhances effect Negative Decreases effect Feedback Mechanismswhen physical processes in the earth39s atmosphere system further impact the initial change If initial perturbation is reduced then negative if enhanced then positive LECTURE 2Earth and the Greenhouse Effect Radiation and heat balance 343 wm2 incoming solar radiation 214Wm2 reflected back by clouds surface atmosphere 67 absorbed by atmosphere 168 absorbed by surface What gasses are in the atmosphere Nitrogen 78 02 20 Argon Gas 093 02 percentage varies Water Vapor 05 4 Aerosols Other gases GHGC02 and Methane main ones nfuence radiation balance on Earth Incoming Radiation Source Sun Most wavelengths visible and near infrared Higher frequency energy visible and some infrared can penetrate clouds GHG gases absorb outgoing thermal radiationC02 absorbs at the same wavelength of outgoing radiation Source Earth Wavelenghts infra red Cannot typically penetrate clouds keeps the Earth warmer 02 and N2 are inert allows energy to pass through them Good absorbers are good emitters Greenhouse effect works Evoution of atmosphere and GHG39s allows for a change in the energy balance Electromagnetic energy is absorbed by Earth39s surface and GHG Energy is absorbed the wavelength emitted is different from the wavelength of incoming energydecay higher energy to lower energy The wavelength change and GHG absorption are key factors in the greenhouse effect Greenhouse effect not like an actual greenhouse Convection processes in atmosphere cannot be modeled in the greenhouse Wind and other types of heat transfer are included in air circulation patterns Infrared Heat 83 of Earth39s thermal energyfarinfrared energy is absorbed Additiona energy increases Earth39s Average Tempt Large Scale Heat Redistribution Earth39s average temperature is problematic to use in describing climate change Why is it uneven Thickness of atmosphere Angle of incidence Energy reflection is dependent upon low angle of incidence Coriolis Effect Low latitude tropics are warm compared to higher latitudes Troposphere first 10 to 15 km of atmosphere Where weather occurs height decreases at poles to 7 km height increases at equator to 15 km Poles have higher pressure zones and Equator has lower Stratosphere contains 19 of Atmospheric gases Troposphere contains 80 In between is Tropopause Ozone layer Heat Transfer Poleward movement of heat from equator to poles angle of incidence low angle of incoming Sunlight in the poles At Equatordirectly overhead Coriolis force Circulation patterns clockwise in North counterclockwise in South Affects large scale heat distribution Earth39s tilt going to affect angle of Sunlight