Chapter 1: What is Psychology
Chapter 1: What is Psychology PSYC 101
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Glantz on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Towson University taught by Dr. Willen in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Definitions Psychology The discipline comcerned with behavior and the mental processes and how they are affected by an organism39s physical mental and external enviornment Psychobabble jargon used in Popular Psychology Empirical Relying on or derived from observation experimentation or measurement Critical Thinking The ability and willingness to asses claims and make judgements on the basis of wellsupported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote Occam39s Razor A critical thinker chooses a side that accounts for the most evidence while making few unverified assumptions Phrenology Nowdiscredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits which can be quotreadquot from bumps on the skull Structuralism An early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements Functionalism An early psychological approach that emphasizes the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness Wilhelm Wundt Established the first psychology lab Influenced Structuralism William James Influenced Functionalism Charles Darwin Evolutionary Psychologist Founder of the Theory of Evolution Sigmund Freud Founder of psychoanalysis Created the ID Ego and Superego Created the idea of dream interpretation Psychoanalysis A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy originally formulated by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts Biological Perspective A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions feelings and thoughts Evolutionary Perspective A field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in Clinton development emotion social practices and other areas of behavior Learning Perspective A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect w person39s or animal39s actions Behaviorists Focused on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors SocialCognitive Learning Theorists Combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts values expectations and intentions Cognitive Perspective A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception memory language problem solving and other areas of behavior Sociocultural Perspective A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior Social Psychologists Social rules and roles groups and relationships People are often more aggressive in a crowd than on their own Cultural Psychologists Cultural Norms values and expectations Cultures based on herding rather than agriculture tend to train boys to be aggressive Feminist Psychology A psychological approach that analyzes that influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes Basic Psychology The study of psychological issues for the sake of of knowledge rather than for its practical application Applied Psychology The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance Experimental Psychologist Conducts lab studies of learning motivation emotion sensations and perception physiology and cognition Education Psychologist Studies psychological principles that explain learning and search for ways to improve educational systems Developmental Psychologist Studies how people change and grow over time physically mentally and socially lndustrialOrganizational Psychologist Studies behavior in the workplace Concerened with group decision making employee morale work motivation productivity and other Issues Psychometric Psychologist Designs and evaluates tests of mental abilities aptitudes interests and personality Counseling Psychologist Help people deal with problems of everyday life School Psychologist Work with parents teachers and students to enhance performance and resolve emotional difficulties Clinical Psychologist Diagnoses treats andor studies mental and emotional problems both mild and severe Psychotherapist A person who does psychotherapy no degree to advanced professional degree Psychoanalyst Practices psychoanalysis had specific training in this approach after an advanced degree may treat emotional disorder or pathology Psychiatrist Similar to clinical psychiatric but will take more of a biological approach Lecture Psychology The Study of behavior and mental processes Behavior Everything we do that can be directly observed Mental Thoughts feelings and motives that cannot be directly observed The Four Main Goals 1 Describe Research 2 Explain Research 3 Predict Research 4 Modify Applied Psych Past Wilhem Wundt o Structuralism o Lepizig 189 o lntrospection What a person thinks William James o Functionalism o Formed the idea of consciousness Stream of Consciousnessquot o Wrote first Psychology Textbook Edward Titchner 0 Made the first lab in the USA Stanley Hall 0 JHU Head Contemporary Approachs 1 Biological Approach 0 Everything we say or do is connected to biology Brain chemistry is related to emotions 2 BehaviorLearning Approach 0 John B Watson 0 BF Skinner o A Stimulus and a Response depending on the consequence the response would be repeated 3 PsychodynamicApproach o Psychomind o Emphasizes three points 1 Childhood experiences determine adult personality 2 Unconscious mental process influence everyday behavior 3 Psychodynamic energies are of conflict 0 Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis Treatment Our unconscious thoughts determine everyday actions Unconscious is where the info that you are unaware of is stored Subconscious is information just below conscious level ID Ego and Superego 0 Karen Horny Feminist Criticism of Freud 0 Carl Jung Developed concepts of collective unconscious and archives 4 Humanistic 0 Third Forcequot 0 Not Behavior or Unconscious but rather Free Will 0 Carl Rogers Pioneer of the development of the humanistic theory 0 Abraham Maslow Unconditional Positive Regard Individuals need to be accepted valued and treated positively regardless of behavior Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization The motivation to develop one s full potential 5 Cognitive Approach 0 Emphasizes mental processes in perception memory language and problem solving 0 Jean Piget FrenchSwiss First to look at the way we think The Way we think Changes with Age 0 Information Processing Theorist thoughts not according to age Memory Very Short Short Long 6 Sociocultural o Focus s on the individuals surrounding 0 Albert Badira Made a lasting mark on Personality emphasizes conscious awareness beliefs expectations and goals 0 Observational Learning