Chemistry Week 4 Chapter 4
Chemistry Week 4 Chapter 4 CHEM 111 001
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CHEM 111 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bianca Notetaker on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 001 at University of New Mexico taught by smith in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Elements Of General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
4 Light Tuesday September Z 15 116 PM 0 Two types of waves O variable velocities and require a medium to propogate a fluctuation in a medium water air that creates a ripple O the denser the medium the light is traveling through the slower it will go but all will still travel at the speed of light visible light UV Xrays etc 0 lambda A distance from one peak to another units m 0 Frequency peaks per unit time units hz 0 Wave velocity 0 Light can be expressed as a wave that travels at the speed c 300 x 10quot8 c7 x v 0 We can use this relationship to convert between wavelength and the frequency of light I Velocity A x wavelength or distance time 0 Electromagnetic spectrum and light energy ilk39qllk39lik i i I I I I I I I I AIHI IIIl lll III H IIIquot III III In IIIquot III IIIquot Visible light Low Radio Microwave Infrared 1 5llrmiolel X ray iamma N High ener 9n 939 MI l ll tII 39y 39IL39IL I1 llI 39 I 39 I I I I I T 1 l I I I m III 10 In 101 10quot III quot lquot7 10 III I III I in quot Tim TIMI I SII hill 330 Twin XII IIIII lx39ml 39Ivvnlh A I nm I Iulvi 0 Why do we see so little of the EM Spectrum I Most of the light that hits the earth is in the visible region that39s where our eyes have adapted to be able to see 0 Atomic spectra 0 Elements gave off a discrete characteristic color when heated 0 1913 Bohr39s Atomic Model electrons defined in orbit O Able to take wavelength of photons and fit them perfectly to his mathematical model 0 When an electron goes from a higher energy level to a lower energy level it39s called an 0 When it goes from a lower energy state to a higher energy state it39s called O The difference in energy between orbits will match the photon energy that is emitted or absorbed o Bohr39s model only works when you have a single electron 0 Wave properties 0 Superstition and interference I waves are additive Overall wave wave 1 wave 2 I Natural functions for describing waves sinx cosx I peaks and troughs I Constructive interference quotin phasequot I Destructive interference quotout of phasequot 0 Diffraction I Double slit experiment have two light sources going through one slit youll get New Section 1 Page 1 alternating patterns of constructive light spots and destructive dark spots interference 0 Wave particle duality 0 Wave behavior I Light waves can interfere I Light diffracts I Light can be characterized by wavelength or frequency 0 Particle behavior I Light comes in wave packets called photons I Light has momentum and energy 0 Wave particle duality Matter 0 Wave behavior I Electrons can interfere I Electrons can diffract I Electrons can be characterized by wavelength or frequency 0 Particle behavior I Electrons come in discrete packets I Electrons have momentum and energy 0 Max Planck o 1900 invoked the quantum to explain how heated matter radiates energy 0 When matter emits energy as light it does so in integer steps of a fundamental quantity this energy is quotquantizedquot 0 Used this to create the quantum model of the atom De Broglie O Matter waves 0 Basically though If light is a wave and it interacts with the electrons maybe the electrons are waves too 0 Created the 1st 2nd and 3rd harmonics with the vibrations on a string 0 He imagined stretching a wave around a circle New Section 1 Page 2 4 Shells and Subshells Tuesday September 9 Z 15 1234 PM 0 More than one electron shells and sub shells 0 Each shell can hold 2nquot3 electrons total Each shell can hold 2n2 electrons total luqml u a 777 n 1 212 2 2 electons cm i n 2 222 8 electons quot quot quot 39 O n 3 232 2 l8 electons utlvus n 4 BleCtOHS 0 Each shell can be broken down into subshells each particular subshell will relate to a particular orbital shape Subshell Angular Max 5 0 Quantum Electrons 30 2 Q l U1 1 6 2 10 0 33 14 d hQ C 0 Each new shell has an additional subshell n or or subshell Orbital labelling Max Electrons shell 1 D is 2 CI 1 25 2p 8 3 o 1 2 351359 3d 13 4 Cl 1 3 45 4p 4d 4f 32 I N and l are also called quantum numbers I The principle quantum number determines the overall energy and distance away from the nucleus I The angular momentum quantum number describes the shape 0 Subshells and electronic configurations New Section 1 Page 1 Period number 1 H HL j fbhell being lulled Pt rmd number 3 4 o S 39 d I p a 39 3 Shell being filled 39 period number 1 U l f Shell being filled period number 2 Here s lhnw we d writ the electron cehfigur ati n fer lhyd regen I I i 151 o H n1 i Principle 3 El She39ll subshell 0 Noble gas format of writing electronic configurations 0 There is a shorthand notation for writing electronic configurations I Find the nearest previous noble gas and fill in the rest 0 Valance and core electrons 0 Chemical bonds are formed using the outermost shell of electrons in atoms these are called 0 mese are the electrons in the inner shell and do not participate in bonding O The noble gas notation when you start to add d and felectrons does not always differentiate between core and valance electrons 0 There is an easier way to identify valance and core electrons ft f eectrm Eraup it valence aquot Care aquot H 1 111 or 1 1 U D 3 ETA er 15 6 2 I P 15 5A or 1 5 5 1D if 23 SE er 5 5 1E Br 35 T11 er 1 T 28 He SR or 18 2 l 0 Similar valence electron configurations to periodicity New Section 1 Page 2 O The periodic table can be separated into locks characterized by the unfilled valance orbitals Orbital Blocks of the Periodic Table Groups I ls A I 1 D sblock elements 3 pblock elements n H I I 6 397 ii Iquot M dblock elements block elements quotA 39M 5quot 0quot 7quot quot39I 5 l I D 5 o 7 a o lo 2 Li Be 3 C N 0 P u39 21 h zp39 2 z Iflp39 b 2p zr zp 292 u I u u n 16 I7 ll 3 N m l 4 5 o I s 9 0 II I s r s at A J 14 KB 4H SB 68 quotB 8H 1 IR 28 5131 3339 31 3939 Js lp My 3513 43 19 20 39 39 39 39 39 31 32 31 34 as 36 e 4 K c Ge As Sc x O 5 u39 u 4 u ip39 41 ulip lip u ap 414 37 as 39 49 50 5 53 so Rh 5 t In SI SI Te l X 5quot 55 55 s 5125p 5 5p39 s s srsp 565V 55 so 39 at 52 a M as as 6 Cs 3 TI Pb Bl Po AI Rn 6quot 63 miep39 6 qu or39ep misp 6516 656 37 as us in us No 7 Fr lb 7139 71 53 59 no 6i 6 as u 65 so 67 so as 7o 71 Lunthanidcs Ce PI PI 5 h Gd 39lb Dy Ho Ill 39 1b Yb LI 6quot 39 6341 our a q u q 8 4 a q u r e841quot 6534quot 53941quot 684quot 394 quotu39 90 9 92 v 90 9s 95 97 95 99 too lot to to Actinides I P U Np P Al C II C It I ll I No I 7MP 733quot W39 n sr u39 7hr 76W new 751 735quot 715quot 7115quot 115quot 785 35 Orbital Blocks of the Periodic Table Groups I IS l 8A I l39139 D sblock elements D pblock elements n H 1 lb 397 e 1quot 2quot Iiiblock elements D block elements quotA 39M 5quot 0quot 7quot quot39I 3 i s o 7 a o no 2 Li Be C N 0 P Ne u39 21 b zp z 2quot b 2p zr zp z 2 lz39 5 39sl 393 39squot 25 A 3 J 14 3339 m 353 3quot 313 43 139 20 as 33 34 as 36 4 M Sc 3139 O 5 u39 u Ap alip lip u ap if 37 as 50 5 53 so Rb 5 Sn Sh Te l X 5139 55 5525p 5 5p39 s sw sr 5p ssisy 55 so 52 a M as as 6 Cs 3 Bl Po AI Ru 6quot 65 Mopquot or39ep u ap 65161 636 37 as m us No 7 h It 7139 73 53 59 u 6i 6 as u 65 so 67 an as 70 71 Lunthanidcs Cc P M PI 5 h Gd 15 Dy Ho Er 39 1b Yb LI a 39 6341 8 41 a q 034139 0341 a q u o f 6141quot 4 53941quot 68039 3941 u39 90 9 92 9 N 95 9o 97 95 99 too lot to to Actinides P U Np Pu Al C It C It PI I No L aw 74mquot m39 n sf 39 7hr 76 mm 7a 5f 735quot 715quot 7115 115 715 f a New Section 1 Page 3 4 Periodic Trends Wednesday September 9 Z 1S 239 AM 0 Periodic trends Train Definitien Praeeas Iquot Nate s Inareaaing Atomic Average radius of Determined experimentally tram pairs Radius neutral ateims nf atoms quot Ionizatian Ener 39 to remove El A a 31 E 1 quot Ell lIE2 at 3 ait e39 Energy an ElECUUiFI Em 0 Can be understood in part by thinking about the charges that the valance electrons are seeing This is called 2 effective Z S S of core electrons O Increases as you go down and to the left on the periodic table ex smallest is helium O Ionization energy increases as you go up and to the right Electronic 2 It of care 3E Element a Eenfiguratmn ef latetrans electrons Effective charge la 15225321 5 2 a O I 152 232 Epz E 2 3911 Ni 152 233 T Z 5 o 152 252 apt a 2 a 152 232 Epi 9 2 Atomic radius 0 Increases as you go down and to the left Ionic size 0 Radius increase with n for both anions and cations 0 Size of an ion still increases as you go down and to the left 0 Charges have a larger effect I Highest positive charge gt smallest I Highest negative charge gt largest I Cations smallest gt neutral atoms gt anions biggest Ionization energy 0 Energy to remove an electron O The trend in ionization energies increases up and to the right First ionization energies New Section 1 Page 1 O lnnimliun energy klmull 3500 Noble gases HHN laquot Period 5 HNHl Period 4 transition transition V elements elements 7 n I l l Rh n ClJlN l l l l i l l 2H 3U 4U 50 3H iomic number According to the trend the higher up and to the right you are the higher ionization energy you39ll have Alkaline metals have the lowest ionization energies Noble gases have the highest ionization energythis is why they39re so stable New Section 1 Page 2