Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes INR3003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Beatriz Arteaga on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INR3003 at Florida State University taught by Whitney Bendeck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Affairs in International Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Realism and the Origins of Major Powers War I WWI A Germany and the Security Dilemma Unification of Germany 1871 Catalyst for WWI Two sides surrounding the 39 quotGermanquot states offset each other Otto von Bismarck chancellor of new unified Germanymade a strong Germany Made treaties solely for defensive purposes protecting new German state 0 Two systems of alliance Triple Entente Great Britain France Russia Triple Alliance Germany Austria Hungary Italy 0 Alliances created balance B Balance of Power and Reasons for its Demise 1 Power Transition rose Reaists say during a power transition war is likely to happen Great Britain was the strongest power at the time as Britain39s power waned Germany39s power Germany surpassed Great Britain in the 190039s 0 WWI was Germany39s fault throuqh this theory Showed offense first 2 Russia and Preventative War Russia Rising Theory Germany wanted to wage a war to prevent Russia from becoming a quotmega powerquot and prevent a threat Nationaism increased animosity between the powers WW was the most catastrophic war up to that point Russian Ottoman AutoHungarian NewlyGerman Empires all fell 0 WWI was still Germany39s fault thouqh this theory Interwar to WWII A Pyrrhic Victory victory cost so muchwasn39t worth the victory Death toll was so staggering all powers were in a state of shock Economies were severely impacted France was destroyed Great Britain was a declining power US came out strongest of the powers went into isolation B Balance of Power No one was in the position to play the strongest power quotFree for allquot Critical for realists NO BALANCE OF POWER NO STABILITY C League of Nations Hope was to get the powers to cooperate Did not have a military by design Could impose sanctions could vote to use force from the states involved Britain and France US Congress didn t want to be drawn into someone else39s war US wasn39t in the League of Nations REALISTS DO NOT BLAME THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS did not believe it would work in the first place D Appeasement 0 Japan Manchukuo will oppose the League of Nations first 1931 Japan decided to expand expanded into China territory League of Nations condemned Japan as an aggressor Japan left the League of Nations renamed Manchuria 0 Italy October 1935 Italy would move to take over Ethiopia tried in 1896 Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations for help League of Nations condemned Italy but didn39t do anything else minimal sanctions no oil embargo Mussolini promised war is they imposed an embargo 1936 Britain and France recognized Ethiopia as conquered League of Nations didn t stop the aggressor D Nazi Germany as a Revisionist State Mearsheimer39s viewpoint From the readinqs Mearsheimer says quotStates could never be sure about another state 395 intentions quotSurvival is the primary qoal of states and quotStates are rational actors they will be calculatinq what they need to do to ensure their security Mearsheimer also says states are likely to act offensively to each other and not likely to cooperate selfhelp Germany removed itself from the League of Nations 1933 1935 violates treaty from WWI and rearmed itself No one was able to stop Germany Britain was not strong enough Britain and France has a security dilemma September 1938 Munich Conference expanding into the Sudetenland which was part of Czechoslovakia 0 Appeasement Britain and France will give Germany Sudetenland No balance of power Germany acts to keep powersecurity Germany was a revisionist state revise the order wanted to be the major power of Europe I Nature of the Cold War According to realists Cold War stayed quotcoldquot because the world was bipolar and therefore there was a balance of power Realists focus on the STRUCTURE of the system and coming out of WWII there were two major powers US and USSR From the readinq Mearsheimer states that a heqiment wants to be the only heqiment if there are two they will compete Nuclear arms race Baanced world between two major nuclear powers Proxy wars A The Suez Canal Crisis Egypt Geography is incredibly important Two majors both sought to maintain the balance of power and avoid a nuclear war Suez Canal important for trade control of the canal means oil Great Britain used to control the canal 1 Nasser Came into power 195039s One of his primary goals was to ensure Egypt39s survival Relationships between US and Egypt soured Egypt was working with the Soviets and taking a lot of aid from them as well Egypt Nasser recognized China flew in the face of American policy US pulled funding from Egypt 2 Suez War 1956 Nasser nationalized Suez Canal meant Egypt took full control Britain was out Algerian39s were inspired by Nasser and rose up against France Algeria was a colony of France Egypt formed a military and alliances that threatened Israel Great Britain France and Israel were pissed off and formed an alliance and planned a war on US did not help its allies too risky to allow it to escalate Soviet Union threatened to strike Britain and France US had a quotCold War Policyquot if the Soviets struck Britain or France the US would strike back US supported UN in imposing sanctions and told our allies to back off 3 Lessons We Can Learn Restraint A small state can play a REALLY big role Same lessons can be learned in Cuban Missile Crisis B Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Castro Khrushchev and Kennedy Castro was communist Bay of Pigs Soviet Union saw an immediate opportunity in Cuba since it39s off the coast of the US Soviets established missile sites in Cuba all in striking range of nuclear missiles Levels of escalation at the first conflict you do not threaten a nuclear strike you hope your opponent will back down US told USSR to back off by a certain date and if not there would be a nuclear war Soviets backed off dismantled the sites Move into a period of d tente quotcooling offquot with the Soviets N Cold War Deterrence Both powers maintained nuclear deterrence Bipolarity Led to stability A Weighing the Risks No state makes war against another power if they don39t think they can win it Before war a state always calculates the stakes of that war B Conventional vs Nuclear Wars In a conventional war the losing state will still survive in a nuclear was survival is not guaranteed C Impact of Nuclear Deterrence Both US and Soviet Union passed a very tense stage which resulted in some form of quotpeace D Ending the Cold War US and Soviet Union tied off communications E EastCentral Europe Gorbachev reformer Berlin wall comes down I Will We Miss the Cold War We won39t miss the tense atmosphere but the stability will be missed
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