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Chapter 1

by: Payton Hagerdorn

Chapter 1 PSYC - 40111 - 001

Payton Hagerdorn
GPA 3.85
Shannon Ciesla (P)

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About this Document

This is the basic explanation of what abnormal psychology is, how it is defined and the history of abnormal psych.
Shannon Ciesla (P)
Class Notes
abnormal psych
25 ?





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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Payton Hagerdorn on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC - 40111 - 001 at Kent State University taught by Shannon Ciesla (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 09/09/15
Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1 Abnormal psychology the eld devoted to the scienti c study of abnormal behavior to describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns of functioning How people are able to adapt to daily life Also referred to as psychopathology How would YOU de ne it if you had to o Deviating from social norms o Negatively impacting daily life and wellbeing and physicalmental health 0 Discrepancy in cognition The four D s Deviance o Distress o Dysfunction 0 Danger Deviance O From behaviors thoughts and emotions that differ markedly from a society s ideas about proper functioning These ideas vary culturally and over time Judgments of abnormality also depend on speci c circumstances ie culture societal values social context Problems with this de nition 0 Not necessarily set standards for what is acceptable and what is not varies a lot depending on many different factors Potential problems with using deviance as an indicator 0 Social norms potential for misuse ie homosexuality Many normal people report strange experiences and behaviors that doesn t make them abnormal Statistical rarity o If it s really rare for people to experience it s abnormal This refers to attempts to de ne deviance without using criteria that s as subjective eg social norms o What are problems with this de nition 0 Rare to one may be common to another 0 Very broad doesn t de ne what is actually quotrarequot Ex having a higher than normal IQ a not a disorder Potential problems with using statistical rarity as an indicator 0 Some great things are rare 0 Some problematic or harmful behaviors are NOT rare Eg Alcoholism substance use disorder is not rare Distress Behavior ideas or emotions usually have to cause distress before they can be labeled abnormal 0 But do symptoms of mental illness always cause distress 0 quotHey I m King Henry VIII Never felt better thanksquot Personality disorders addiction etc Bereavement some forms of suffering are so normative that a LACK of suffering can sometimes be indicative of pathology Dysfunction Abnormal behavior tends to be dysfunctional it interferes with daily functioning But what if a mental illness is functional 0 Eg PTSD could be viewed as functional Who de nes what is considered to be functional anyway o It can vary Dangen Abnormal behavior may become dangerous to oneself or others 0 Behavior may be consistently careless hostile or confused o VERY uncommon Although cited as a feature of psychological abnormality research suggests that being dangerous is the exception rather than the rule The bottom line is that it is difficult to agree on a de nition of abnormality that can be applied to all disorders We might agree that psychological abnormalities should be de ned as patterns of functioning that are deviant distressful dysfunctional and sometimes dangerous but these criteria are often vague and subjective What is treatment Once clinicians decide that a person is suffering from abnormality they seek to treat it 0 Treatment or therapy is a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more adaptive behavior Many different types of treatment 0 Often based on the speci c disorder being treated Many things might contribute to improvement in mental health it s important to de ne treatment All forms of therapy have three essential features 0 A sufferer who seeks relief from the healer o A trained socially accepted healer whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer and his or her social group 0 A series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer through which the healer tries to produce certain changes in the sufferer s emotional state attitudes and behavior 0 Treatment is an ongoing process 0 Despite this straightforward de nition clinical treatment is surrounded by con ict and confusion 0 Lack of agreement about goals or aims What is a successful outcome eg a reduction in symptoms An increase in functional behaviors Change in behavior motivation Cure very optimistic goal 0 Are sufferers patients ill or clients having difficulty Seeking treatment Annually 30 of adults and 19 of children and adolescents in the US display serious psychological disturbances and are in need of clinical treatment Stressors and nonclinical problems Most people have difficulty coping at various times How was abnormality viewed and treated in the past Ancient societies likely regarded abnormal behavior as the work of evil spirits Many presentday ideas and treatments have roots in the past Trephination cut little circular holes in the skull supposed to release the evil spirits and cure people of their mental illnesses There is evidence from Egyptian Chinese and Hebrew writings that attribute abnormal behavior to possession by demons Often used exorcism as a treatment Greek and Roman views and treatments 500 BC 500 AD Philosophers and physicians offered different explanations and treatments for abnormal behaviors Hippocrates believed and thought that illnesses had natural causes 0 Looked to an unbalance of the four uids or humors 0 Suggested treatments attempted to rebalance The four humors yellow bile black bile blood phlegm Eurobe in the Middle Ages 5001350 AD 0 The church rejected scienti c forms of investigation and it controlled all education 0 Religious beliefs were dominant o Abnormality was seen as a con ict between good and evil 0 Some of the earlier demonological treatments reemerged At the close of the Middle Ages demonology and its methods began to lose favor again The Renaissance and rise of asylums 14001700 AD Demonological views abnormality continued to decline 0 German physician Johann Weyer believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body 0 The care of people with mental disorders continued to improve in this atmosphere 0 Rise of asylums institutions whose primary purpose was care of the mentally ill 0 Good care was the intention but became virtual prisons due to overcrowding The nineteenth century reform and moral treatment 0 As 1800 approached the treatment of people with mental disorders began to improve once again 0 Pinel France and Tuke England advocated moral treatment care that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful techniques 0 By the end of the nineteenth century several factors led to a reversal of the moral treatment movement 0 Money and staff shortages o Overcrowding o Assumption that all patients could be cured with humanity and dignity alone a little too simplistic not enough to cure mental health disorders 0 Emergence of prejudice Earlv twentieth centurv dual ber5pectives 0 As the moral movement was declining in the late 18005 two opposing perspective emerged o The Somatogenic Perspective abnormal functioning has physical causes 0 The Psychogenic Perspective abnormal functioning has psychological causes 0 Consequences o Somatogenic perspective ineffective biological approaches including eugenics were used to treat mental illness prior to the invention of psychotropic medication in the 19505 Cutting parts of the brain hydrotherapy o Psychogenic perspective led to the development of outpatient treatment 0 Fun fact the Fernald School school for morons young boys were sent here frequently and greatly mistreated Issues with a lot of psychotic people not getting any kind of treatment and a lot suffer from homelessness Current trends o It would hardly be accurate to say that we now live in a period of great enlightenment about or dependable treatment of mental disorders 0 43 of people surveyed believe that people bring mental health disorders upon themselves and 35 consider mental health disorders to be caused by sinful behavior Stillthe past 50 years have brought major changes in the ways clinicians understand and treat abnormal functioning How are people with severe disturbances cared for o In the 19505 researchers discovered a number of new psychotropic medications o Antipsychotic drugs clear up thinking 0 Antidepressant drugs 0 Antianxiety drugs 0 These discoveries led to deinstitutionalization and a rise in outpatient care Outpatient care has now become the primary mode of treatment 0 When patients do need institutionalization it is usually shortterm hospitalization and then ideally outpatient psychotherapy and medication in community settings 0 Shortage of community mental health services and consequences A growing emphasis on preventing disorders and promoting mental heath o The community mental health approach has given rise to the prevention movement 0 Many of today39s programs aim to Correct the social conditions that underlie psychological problems Help individuals at risk for developing disorders The growing in uence of insurance coverage Today the dominant form of insurance coverage is the managed care program in which the insurance company determines key care issues Concerns o Shorten treatment 0 Favor treatments whose results may be shortterm 0 Results in treatment being determined by insurance companies rather than mental health professionals


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