FDNS 2100 Week 3 Notes
FDNS 2100 Week 3 Notes FDNS 2100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Lindler on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Barbara M. Grossman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Human Development at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
Portion Control 9 People Wishing to avoid overconsuming calories must pay attention to portion sizes What s in a Food label product name company s name and address ingredients descending in order by weight amount in the product product bar code nutrition facts panel Serving Sizes FDA established specific serving sizes that re ect amounts people customarily consume i beverages 8 oz ii ice cream 12 cup Food labels i Required Nutrition facts Per Serving total food energy saturated total carbohydrate g broken down by dietary fibersugars protein g vitamin A vitamin C iron and calcium ii The Daily Values daily goals of a person consuming 2000 kcals considered about right for moderately active women teenage girls and sedentary men helps consumers tell Whether or not a food has a lot or a little of nutrient makes it easier to compare brands Percent Daily Value DV lt 5 DV low source Descriptive terms fresh never frozen cholesterol free Health Claims FDA approves statements linking diet and health the nutrient or food substance must be related to a disease or health condition Relationship between diet and health has been clearly established by scientific evidence eX Fiber and Colon Cancer GI Tract Anatomy taking food into the mouth does not assure admission to the body When food is in the GI tract it is outside the body General functions of the GI System propulsion an mixing of GI contents secretion of digestive juices digestion of food absorption of nutrients l Digestion The process by Which food is broken down into absorbable units a Anatomy of the Digestive Tract i Mouth digestion begins in the mouth 1 Salivary glands a enzymes ii Esophagus tube from mouth to stomach iii Stomach 1 Holds food for 24 hours 2 Capacity approximately 4 cups 3 Grinds and churns swallowed food mixing it with acid amp enzymes chyme 4 Stores food if you have no stomach e g surgery must eat small frequent meals 5 Acid medium kills bacteria amp helps absorption of iron calcium 6 Secretes an intrinsic factor needed for vitamin B 12 absorption 7 Mucus layer prevents auto digestion iv Small Intestine 1 Major site of digestion and absorption 2 About 20 feet long 3 Divided into duodenum jejunum ileum a Duodenum i Approximately 1 foot long ii Absorbs iron and water soluble vitamins b J ejunum i Approximately 8 feet long ii Absorbs carbohydrates fat protein and most nutrients c Ileum i Approximately 870 feet long ii Absorbs bile salts vitamin B12 intrinsic factor 4 Emptying into small intestine depends on a Fluidity in chyme b Amount of chyme in the small intestine c Amount of fat present slows emptying 5 Once in the small intestine the chyme inhibits motor activity of stomach V Large intestine colon 1 Lower part of intestine 2 Completes digestion 3 Absorbs water and minerals vitamin K 4 Divided into ascending colon transverse colon descending colon sigmoid colon vi Other 1 Appendix a Narrow blind sac at the beginning of the colon b Role in immune system stores lymph cells 2 Pancreas a Gland that secretes digestive enzymes and juices into small intestine 3 Liver a Produces bile 4 Gall bladder a Stores bile and secretes bile into small intestine The Mechanical Aspect of Digestion Peristalsis waves of contractions involving circular and longitudinal muscles throughout the GI tract Stomach action strongest muscles of the GI tract turn food into chyme mixture of food and GI juices Sphincters circular muscles at specific points in the GI tract that acts as gates to regulate ow The Chemical Aspect of Digestion Saliva contains enzymes especially for carb digestion Gastric Juice from stomach made of enzymes and hydrochloric acid HCl especia11y used for protein digestion mucus protects stomach from HCl Pancreatic Juice secreted into intestine enzymes for carb protein fat bicarbonate to neutralize chyme coming from stomach neutra1ize makes chyme less acidic Intestinal enzymes enzymes for carb protein fat enzymes work best in neutral pH Remember Acid pH less than 07 Neutral pH 7 Basic alkaline pH 714 Bile made by the liver stores in gall bladder gall bladder squirts bile into small intestine When fat is present not an enzyme but an emulsifier ie break fat into little droplets The Chemical Aspect of Digestion Protective Factors good bacteria intestinal ora makes some Vitamins protect against bad bacteria Viruses Probiotics supplements containing good bacteria The Final Stage large intestine colon absorbs water and minerals and Vitamin K End Product of Digestion Big Unit 9 Little Unit Protein 9 amino acids Carbohydrate 9 monosaccharides Fat 9 fatty acids and glycerol These cross the intestinal cells into the bloodstream ie they are absorbed If you don t absorb it you don t get any calories from it
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