Lecture Notes Week One
Lecture Notes Week One EAR 110 - M010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kassidy Mason on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EAR 110 - M010 at Syracuse University taught by S. Samson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 217 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Earth Sciences at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
Tuesday September 1 2015 EAR 110 Why Study the Earth Earth is unique in that it is home to more than a million life forms No other known planet has that delicate balance Natural resources everything humans use come from the Earth We need to study geologic phenomena to predict natural hazardsmitigate their effects Volcanoes earthquakes hurricanes tsunamis Human impact on Earth Must understand effects of climate change Droughts crop failure glacier meltingsea level rise habitat lossextinction Energy amp Natural Resources Why does gas cost so much How much oil is left in the world How do we find it What will your kids drive How much will they pay per gallon World production has already peaked Future economic impacts are potentially dire Geologic Hazards Earth s volcanism is equally critical to understand And worry about too what will happen to Seattle when Mt Rainier erupts Earthquakes and Tsunamis Why do they happen Where do they happen Can we predict them More than 280000 people died in the December 26 2004 Indonesian Sumatra EarthquakeTsunami disaster Global Warming The 10 warmest years in the last 120 years occurred after 1995 Tuesday September 1 2015 How long do scientists predict Mt Kilimanjaro will maintain its ice cap given effects of global warming Many of the world s mountain glaciers are shrinking Portage Glacier Ak 1914 Portage Glacier Ak 2004 Greenland At current rate of ice melt it will really be green The biggest ice sheet of them all Antartica Entire continent is covered in ice PreIVIodern Scientific Thought About the Earth Early explanations o Earth s environment mountains canyons etc ascribed to terrible catastrophes Sudden worldwide disasters were thought to have shaped the Earth EX Explaining mass extinctions layers of sedimentary Strata formation of Grand Canyon etc Causes of these socalled disasters were not known In fact not knowable or explainable thus by definition not scientific This nonscientific view of the world began to change about 200 years ago with a simple or radical depending on viewpoint idea or concept Uniformitarianism Uniformitarianism James Hutton a Scottish gentleman doctor came up with this concept uniform not changing or what is happening on Earth today was happening in the past How far back in the past Hutton had no way of knowing age of Earth but he felt that Earth processes must have continued for so long that there is No vestige of a beginning no prospect of an end In other words Hutton felt that Earth was close to ageless and that today s processes shaping the Earth had been going on for billions of years which it has The present and past are also the key to the future But we should also note that Humans may be changing the above statement Earth s future environment may be very different than if humans were not here Tuesday September 1 2015 Creation of Earth Atoms are made up of Protons Positive charge Neutrons No charge Electrons e Negative charge Protons amp neutrons are almost the same size and mass Together they make up the nucleus of the atom Nucleus is surrounded by electrons tiny negative charged particles only occur at specific distances from the nucleus and there are only so many at a given distance The aspect of e specific distances from nucleus means specific discrete energy levels we say energy levels are quantized It is the outermost e that controls how atoms bond with other atoms Atoms make up minerals minerals make up rocks of protons in nucleus defines the atomic number and name of the element EX Atoms with 8 protons Oxygen Atoms with 13 protons Aluminum Many elements have more than one type Isotopes They have fixed of protons but different neutrons EX 12C 6 Protons 6 Neutrons The way different atoms bond depends on the e farthest from Nucleus Atoms want final energy level to be full 12 full or empty Atoms can gain or lose e to try to get to a more stable energy level
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