Week 2 Notes – September 8 & 10
Week 2 Notes – September 8 & 10 PSY - 0010
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PSY - 0010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Notetaker on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY - 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Cousins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
Introduction to Psychology gt Day 3 September 8th Methods In Psychology How to Know Stuff Scientific Method a set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence lbn alHaytham 9651039 father of the scientific method Theory a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomena rule of parsimony e g sleep improves memory colors improve mood Hypothesis a falsifiable prediction made by a theory The Art of Looking Empirical Method a set of rules and techniques for observation must use methods of observation and methods of explanation O objective and subjective 0 Objective something we can actually measure 0 taking someone into a lab attach electrodes and measure sleep activity through brain waves 0 Subjective own personal opinion or perspective 0 how well i slept last night on a scale of 15 The Study of Humans 0 Complexity 0 Variability 0 Reactivity Observation Measurement Operational Definition a specific precise procedure by which a variable is defined and measured 0 eg assessing color by wavelength color of shirt worn and effect on mood or mood measured by the number of times a person smiles 9 Define and Detect A Good Measure Measure a device that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers for example an EMG O Validity the extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related IRB reviewed 0 making sure that you re given the correct weight when you weigh yourself 9 Reliability the tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing 0 the scale gives you your weight every time you weigh yourself even though it s not the valid weight 9 Power the ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition sample size Demand Characteristics and Observer Bias Demand Characteristics those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think that they should Naturalistic Observation a technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments Observer Bias expectations can influence observations and influence perceptions of reality 9 Double Blind an observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed Descriptions and Graphic Representations Frequency Distribution a graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of time each measurement was made 0 Normal Distribution a mathematically defined frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the middle 0 Skewed Distributions are nonnormal positive or negative skew 0 Positive Skew when tail of data is in the positive region 0 Negative Skew when tail of data is in the negative region 0 tail flat part of data Central Tendencies Mean average Mode most chosen one most frequently visible value Median in the middle Introduction to Psychology gt Day 4 September 10th Three Kinds of Correlations Correlation two variables are said to be correlated when variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with variations in the value of the other 0 shows variable relationships with the value of r o R 1 positive correlation o R 1 negative correlation o R 0 no correlation 0 Positive Correlation both variables increase or decrease together moremore or IessIess O Negative Correlation inverse as one variable increases the other decreases moreIess or Iessmore Causation Natural Correlations a correlation observed in the world around us Third Variable Problem Confounding Variable the fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the naturally occurring correlation between them because of the everpresent possibility of third variable correlation 0 ice cream increasing crime rates nothat happens to be the temperature 0 temperature is the confounding variable 0 it also has a positive correlation relationship with crime rate Third Variable Correlation the fact that two variables are correlated only because each is causally related to a third variable 9 Matched Samples a technique whereby the participants in two groups are identical in terms of a third variable 9 Matched Pairs a technique whereby each participant is identical to one other participant in terms of a third variable Manipulation The creation of an artificial pattern of variation in a variable in order to determine its causal powers Independent Variable the variable that is manipulated in an experiment Dependent Variable the variable that is measured in a study Random Assignment a procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group Experimental Group the group of people who are treated in a particular way in an experiment Control Group the group of people who are not treated in the particular way that the experimental group is treated in an experiment 0 Self Selection a problem that occurs when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group Drawing Conclusions Statistical Significance is determined when we calculate the odds that random assignment has failed through inferential statistics 0 not accepted unless that chance is less than 5 plt5 Internal Validity the characteristic of an experiment that established the causal relationship between variables External Validity the property of an experiment in which the variables have been operationally defined in a normal typical or realistic way are they representative of the real world ellnbl e but I lm Ili39ailrizl 39Il39 lld but Illat H39E abl l 39nilld and HEIIBEIIJE Representative People In an experiment a researcher cannot observe an entire population so instead draws a sample 0 Population the complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured N 0 Sample the partial collection of people drawn from a population n 9 Random Sampling a technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample 0 non random is OK as long as sample represents whole population 9 Case Method a method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual Development of the NUREMBERG CODE 1947 there has to be legitimate medical rationale for medical research must be ethical Willowbrook State School Staten Island 19561963 Institutionalized children many with Down s Syndrome deliberately infected with hepatitis A virus Later with overcrowding parents unable to gain admission for children unless they agreed to study 0 this is called coercion Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Macon County Alabama gt 19321973 tested people for syphilis but if they had it they didn t tell them a infected people died due to lack of treatment US Apologizes for Syphilis Tests in Guatemala Coercion existed here American public health doctors infected prisoners with syphilis to see how to test the effectiveness of penicillin
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