CH104Chapter10StudySoup.pdf CH 104
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Stephen Woski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introductory Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
Tuesday September 8 2015 CH 104 Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry Isotopes atoms of the same element having a different number of neutrons o 1260 12 is the mass number protons neutrons 6 is the atomic number protons Radioactivity nuclear radiation emitted by a radioactive isotope a radioactive isotope radioisotope is unstable and spontaneously emits energy to to form a more stable nucleus radioactivity cannot be detected by the senses can damage or kill cells rapidly dividing cells skin bone marrow reproductive and intestinal systems are most sensitive cancer cells are rapidly dividing cells so radiation affects tumor cells food can be exposed to gamma radiation irradiation to kill living organisms in food afterwards the food is not radioactive and has a longer shelf life radioactive decay process by which an unstable radioactive nucleus emits radiation equation original nucleus gt new nucleus radiation emitted the sum of mass numbers must be equal on both sides of the equation and the sum of atomic numbers must be equal on both sides of the equation Types of Radiation Alpha Emission alpha particle particle that contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons and a charge of 2 this is a He nucleus low energy Tuesday September 8 2015 does not penetrate skin low penetration does not even penetrate air very well difficult to deal with if alpha particles are ingested mass 4 charge 2 Beta Emission beta particle formed when a neutron n is converted into a proton p and a highenergy electron e 1on gt 11p 019 mass 0 charge 1 better penetrator than alpha particles Positron Emission the decay of a nucleus by emitting a positron 1 proton is lost and one neutron is gained 11p gt 1on 019 mass 0 charge 1 better penetrator than alpha particles positron and beta particles are antiparticles of one another antiparticles if they come in contact all the mass goes away and is converted to energy Gamma Emission commonly accompanies other forms of radioactive decay gamma rays are high energy photons released from a radioactive nucleus they have no mass or charge mass 0 Tuesday September 8 2015 charge 0 very high energy light most energetic and most damaging penetrates shieldingyour body Half Lives The halflife of a radioactive isotope is the time it takes for one half of the sample to decay halflives range from milliseconds to millions of years depending on the element If you want to image something in the body with a radioisotope you should use one with a relatively short half life dayshours too long will stay in the body too short will not give you enough time to see Measuring Radioactivity The amount of radioactivity in a sample is measured by the number of nuclei that decay per unit time disintegrations per second 1 Curie Ci 37 x 1010 disintegrationssecond 1 Ci 1000 milliCuries mCi 1 Ci 1000000 microCuries 1 Ci 37x 101O Bq Bq 1 disintegrationsecond Radiation Absorbed by an Organism rad radiation absorbed dose amount of radiation absorbed by one gram of a substance rem radiation equivalent for man amount of radiation that also factors in its energy and potential to damage tissue 1 rem of any type of radiation produces the same amount of tissue damage radiation reduces ions where the don t belong breaks bonds between atoms in compoundsbreaks molecules Tuesday September 8 2015 things that are higher energy cause more damage because they can penetrate more surfaces Radioisotopes in Medicine treatment of disease kill off ces imaging of body parts Positron Emission Tomography PET Scans use radioisotopes which enable scanning of an organ
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