Biology 2 Chapter 42 Notes
Biology 2 Chapter 42 Notes BIOL 1040
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Chapter 42 The Immune System 0 Intro 0 Barriers skin mucous membranes 0 Nonspeci c internal defenses innate phagocytosis certain cells will consume amp destroy invader natural killer cells cells that have the ability to kill foreign invaders in ammation fever Very fastacting 0 Speci c internal defenses acquired cellmediated immunity cells attack invader humoral immunity chemical immunity form antibodies against invader Takes a little bit of time to activate o Innate Immunity o A series of defenses that Act immediately upon infection Are the same whether the pathogen has been encountered before 0 Invertebrates rely solely on innate immunity which may consist of Exoskeleton ie arthropods Low pH Enzymes lysozyme enzyme that acts against a certain pathogen Immune cells capable of phagocytosis cellular ingestion and digestion of foreign substances Vertebrates have innate and adaptive immunity 0 Innate immunity in vertebrates includes Skin and mucus membranes Interferons Neutrophils blood cells phagocytic cells Natural killer cells that attack cancer cells and virus infected cells Macrophages very large blood cells Complement system body creates this to ght disease 0 Tissue damage triggers the in ammatory response Purposes of in ammatory system 0 Can disinfect and clean infected tissues 0 Limit the spread of infection to surrounding ssues 0 Bacterial infections can bring about an overwhelming systemic in ammatory response leading to septic shock High fever and low blood pressure 0 In ammation may be localized or widespread O O O Best to keep it localized because if it is widespread the entire body is seeing these bacteria Sometimes microorganisms get into the blood or release toxins that are carried throughout the body in the bloodstream Bacterial infections can bring about an overwhelming system in ammatory response leading to septic shock characterized by very high fever and low blood pressure 0 Adaptive Immunity O 0000 O 0 Adaptive immunity acquired immunity is a set of defenses found only in vertebrates that is activated only after exposure to certain pathogens We have cells that are made to remember what each pathogen is Our body knows which cells are ours Autoimmune diseases body does not recognize own cells Unlike innate immunity it differs from individual to individual depending on what pathogens they have previously been exposed to Antigens are Any molecule that elicits an adaptive immune response Are nonself molecules that protrude from pathogens or other particles such as viruses bacteria mold spores pollen house dust or cell surfaces of transplanted organs When the immune system detects an antigen it responds with an increase in the number of cells that either attack the invader directly or produce immune proteins called antibodies Antibodies are proteins found in blood plasma that attach to one particular kind of antigen and help counter its affects Adaptive immunity has remarkable memory Remembers antigens that it has encountered before sometimes decades earlier and react against them more quickly and vigorously on subsequent exposures Lymphocytes are white blood cells that spend most of their time in the blood and tissues and organs of the lymphatic system Are responsible for adaptive immunity Provide specialized defenses that act on pathogens located in either the body uids or inside cells Adaptive immunity is usually obtained by natural exposure to antigens but it can be achieved by vaccination also known as immunization The immune system is confronted with a vaccine composed of a harmless variant or part of a diseasecausing microbe such as an inactivated bacterial toxin a dead or weakened virus or a piece of a virus 0 Whether antigens enter the body naturally or arti cially the resulting immunity is called active immunity because the person s own immune system actively produces antibodies o It is also possible to acquire passive immunity by receiving premade antibodies Lymphatic System 0 Involved in innate and adaptive immunity 0 Consists of a branching network of Lymphatic vessels Lymph nodes Lymph which is similar to the interstitial uid that surrounds body cells but contains less oxygen and fewer nutrients Lymphatic vessels Collect uid from body tissues Return it as lymph to the blood The lymphatic system thus has two main functions To return tissue uid back to the circulatory system Fight infection 0 As lymph circulates through lymphatic organs it Collects microbes parts of microbes and microbial toxins Transports them to lymphatic organs where macrophages engulf the invaders and lymphocytes may mount an adaptive response 0 O
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