Wk 3: Ch 2-4
Wk 3: Ch 2-4 Psych 2070
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alma G on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2070 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Swartout in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
Week 3 Chapter 24 Lecture Notes Color coding Lecture Notes Additional Notes Chapter 2 Continuation 0 Large Scale Sexuality Research 0 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior2010 I Privately funded large scale study I Funded by Trojan 0 Allowed more freedom in research I Online polling to ensure privacy 0 People were more willing to present information than if it was in person 0 Updated view on sexuality 0 Patterns of condom use etc I Condom use should still be a public health initiative 0 1 in 4 acts of vaginal intercourse 0 Low numbers that don t use condoms from protection against STDs I People engaging in wide variety of sexual behaviors across lifespan 0 Ex masturbation sex anal oral etc is practiced in ages 147 0 0 Youth and Risk Behavior Survey1991 I Conducted every two years in public and private high schools I Ongoing study of health risks among youth and young adults I Government funded large scale study CDC I Ask questions about all types of risky behaviors 0 Drinking drugs sex food etc I 474 of students had ever had sexual intercourse I 337 are currently sexually active students 0 602 reported to have used condom during encounter O 233 reported use of other form of birth control during encounter O 129 reported no use of condom during last encounter O 221 had drunk alcohol or used drugs before last encounter Chapter 3 Communication and Sexuality 0 The Importance of Communication 0 Social Penetration Theory Onion theory of communication I People are onions with layers and as we communicate with people the layers peel I Early in the relationship we discuss more impersonal issues 0 More personal and in depth quick can create awkward communication 0 Relationship problems often due to poor communication creating anger and frustration I Need to focus on being a good communicator 0 Have the ability to talk about seX etc I due to the unwillingness to acknowledge an issue I good communication happier more satisfied longer relationships 0 Types of Communication 0 Verbal communication spoken words with unhidden message 0 Nonverbal communication everything that is not spoken I Body language tone speed of speech facial expression I Comprises the bulk of communication I Often more powerful than verbal messages Easily misunderstood and culturally bound 0 Different cultures haves different gestures body distance eye contact etc 0 Women are better at deciphering nonverbal communication I Better at reading cues and presenting cues I Due to social learning and context I Men learn when they feel less powerful I Result of status power rather than gender 0 Communication Differences and Similarities 0 Communication and Gender I Mixedsex conversations are typically harder than samesex conversations 0 There is a difference between men and women 0 Why I Genderlects fundamental differences on how men and women communicate 0 men report talk communication of information knowledge etc 0 men report talk communicate for information and knowledge women rapport talkcommunicate on trying to build relationships with other people I women speak differently than men tag questions right want confirmation disclaimers not sure but question statements is this right hedge words sort of I Criticism one dimensional theory 0 Theories about Gender Differences 0 Men and women come from different sociolinguistic subcultures I Learn different rules from same gender friends as children Girls play house and boys fightwin lose power I Women nod to show agreement so it seems that mean do not agree because they do not display same nonverbal messages 0 Communication and Sexual Orientation 0 Most communication research has been done with heterosexuals I Gays do not want to be researched because data would be used against them I Gay men s speech differs from heterosexual men s speech More qualifying adjectives Wider pitch range Extending vowels Aaaamazing More body movement Will not cannot etc I Lesbians speech differs from gay men s speech Narrower pitch Hedge words 0 Similar to heterosexual couples the differenced that we see are likely to powerstatus or gender roles 0 Sexual Communication 0 Positive selfimages and feeling good I Fears about body and attractiveness negatively in uence sexual experience can make sex feel bad 0 Body image affects how attractive we feel 0 Media creates ideal body 0 Advertisements are set up to make society people feel bad to purchase products 0 Talking to partner might be first step to addressing issues 0 Sexy confidence and they might like the parts you are insecure about 0 Selfdisclosure have to open and tell partners I Deepens intimacy and feelings of love as you share and grow as a couple 0 Make relationships strongercritical in healthy relationship I Too much selfdisclosure too soon is risky can make the people feel uncomfortable O Trusting your partner I One of the most important ingredients in relationships I Familypast experiences contribute to ability to trust I Selfdisclosure much easier when trust partner I Trusting partners are more optimistic about future of the relationship 0 Nonverbal communication I Funsexy way to express your desires and reinforce verbal messages 0 Does not always work I Do not rely on it exclusively I Need verbal communication also to make desires translate correctly 0 The Importance of Listening 0 Sex is better when relationship is better 0 Relationships are better when communication is better 0 Communication is better when listening is better 0 Therefore sex is better when listening is better 0 DO NOT DO THESE THINGS I Interrupt should let the person finish talking I Call names rude names that can be hurtful and defensive I Take the low blow saying something to really hurt the other person I Overgeneralize you always 0 Make problem on the person rather than the behavior that was performed I Kitchensink your partner throw in past problems other than the behavior in situation 0 EX you didn t get me a present last year I Have hostile attribution bias when partner tells you something good and you say oh I look bad other times I Get defensive cross complaining well you did this last week denying no I didn t making excuses acting righteously indignant Who do you think you are 0 DO THESE THINGS I Be active listener 0 Make eye contact pay attention to your partner I Use nonverbal to show you re listening nod lean forward good facial expression 0 Summarizeparaphrase what your partner said repeat what they to clearly understand I Validate your partner you do not have to agree 0 I can understand how you feel that way 0 Take turns talking both get to communicate feelings I Choose words carefully 0 Negative words weigh more than positive words bad words last longer than positive words Color Coding Lecture Notes Additional Notes Chapter 4 Gender Development Gender Roles and Gender Identity 0 Gender and Sex 0 Often used interchangeably but I Gender behavioral psychological and social characteristics 0 Womanman feminine masculine 0 People determine gender since it is socially constructed I Sex biological aspects 0 Genitals and chromosomes 0 Male female 0 Sex Prenatal Development 0 46 chromosomes I 23 pairs sperm has 23 egg has 23 I 23rd pair sex chromosome 0 Female XX egg always provide X 0 Male XY determine if baby is male or female 0 Sperm Egg Zygote gt fetus 0 46 weeks after conception sexual differentiation begins I Internal sex organs develop first I External sex organs develop later I Hormones shape the growth of external organs I Brain brain secretes hormones that determine what the sex of fetus will be 0 56 weeks primitive gonad development development of the ovaries or testes I Internally all fetuses have a Wolffian system and a Mullerian system I If testosterone present Y from dad Wolffian system dominates gt testes develop 0 If testosterone NOT present X from dad Mullerian system dominates gt ovaries develop 0 Default female there has to be testosterone involved for a male to develop 0 Development of external genatalia follows similar pattern of in uence by testosterone after internal development that depends on amount of testosterone I Gonadal hormones O Androgens I Testosteronemore amount in males 0 Estrogens I Estradiol O Progestins I Progesterone in females that deals with pregnancy and menstrual cycle 0 The Gender Debate Nature V Nurture O Extent to which gender differences are results of biological differencesnature or social environmentnurture 0 Nature I Gender traits biologically determined differences between males and females 0 EX males are taller than females males are stronger than females females are healthier than males females are less aggressive O Nurture I Gender roles culturally defined behaviors attitudes emotions traits manners appearances and occupations seen by culture as appropriate for males and females 0 EX females have to cook and clean males have to bring in the money females are emotional