week 3 notes
week 3 notes GEOG 103 001
Popular in Introduction to Geography
Popular in Geography
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 103 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Larianne Collins (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.
Reviews for week 3 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/10/15
9815 GEOG103 Maps Maps are a means of communication give the geographic background contains an element of location reduction of a visual reality element of scale one component of a geographic map is map literacy Cartography the art science amp technology of mapmaking all maps are distorted in some way either shape area distance or direction all 4 of those qualities cannot be preserved on a flat piece of paper Types of Maps Reference maps general purpose maps atlas style ex physical political topographic o topographic use contour lines which display elevationincline 0 iso line connects continuous points of the same value ex of contour lines 0 iso therms connect points of equal value measuring temperature same temp o no analyzation going on with these maps just generally looking where something is Thematic maps special purpose maps ex cartogram choropleth dot proportional symbols etc 0 represent 1 or 2 variables in map form population income ethnicity etc o the language uses color shape size shadows etc o symbology point line polygon every single map is made up of those 0 2 main purposes presentation of data amp ANALYSIS of data Tvoes of Thematic Maps 0 dot maps all dots the same size with what they re representing 0 proportional symbols map points are different sizes representing different magnitudevolume bigger symbols are for bigger areas etc 0 flow line maps shows movement 1 theme ex migration from Latin America to US 0 area class maps show different areas represented by different colors classified areas with be in the key 0 choropleth map uses usually only 1 colorshadings of that color to differentiate data ex life expectancy map shown in class generally a percentagemathematical calculation requiredcounting o cartogram map cartoon uses size to display data size is exaggerated based on value Virtual amp interactive maps ex google earth MapQuest google maps 0 maps which users control what they want to includesee Mental maps our perception of how we see certain placesif we were asked to draw a map Map scale the ratio of map distance to group distance ex word statement graphic scale representative fraction 0 one inch equals 5 mile 0 graphic scale is the only one that remains absolutetrue no matter what what is the level of detail 0 Small scale small detail LARGE area 0 Large scale large detail SMALL area 0 Scale and area are opposite o All relative to other maps which you are comparing them to Scale affects generalization o Rivers area line feature 0 Cities area point feature Purposes of Maps travel routes pattern comparison location analysis finding the best location for new store etc display of changing data crime density hot spots where are crimes more or less likely to occur political statements exgrape chile map Mapping Issues Bad maps no titles no labels in legend too busyhard to read Color red used to alarm people Deceit making maps wrong on purpose cold war Russia map ex Representation choice data doesn t change but the way we represent it can errors maps may represent two roads in different locations since they re made with human error purposeful errors putting mistakes on maps to follow their data and see copyright issues How does one display a round world on a flat surface Map projection the science of transferring locations on earth39s surface to a flat map 0 Flattening the earth is a geometry problem 0 All maps are distorted in different ways and to different degrees SADD 0 Area of least distortion are closest to where developable surface touches the globe paper if you re doing it how described below 0 3 typicalclasses of map projections developable surfaces conic cylindrical planar oval how we make projections 91015 Properties of Projection ex missile threat 1 Equal area preserves areas in the correct proportion of reality 0 Distorts shapes 2 Conformal preserves correct angular shapes so that it looks right 0 Distorts area 3 Equidistant preserves true distances in one direction or along selected lines from 1 point 0 Distorts area 4 Azimuthal maintains true directions from one central point to all other points 0 Can also be equidistant conformal or equal area but not all 4 but distorts everything excluding direction GeosDatial Technoloqies What are they 1 GPS global positioning system 0 Uses satellites to LOCATE something on earth s surface 0 Determines precise location of something on earth in 3 dimensions latitude longitude altitude 0 Atomic clocks broadcast info to receivers which analyze time signals to determine location 0 based on time 2 Remote Sensing 0 Uses satellites to DESCRIBE earth s surface 0 science of obtaining amp recording images of earth s surface from a sensing device not in direct contact w the surface 0 photographs thermal scanners radar lidar 0 ex ocean temps soil coverage sea level rise deforestation 0 play a huge role in emergency management GPS does too 3 GIS Geographic Information SystemScience o absolutely revolutionized the way people make amp use maps c all computer based system for capturing storing querying analyzing and displaying geospatial data 0 maps in layers spatial overlay o we can view things simultaneously or separately 0 a tool that allows us to understand spatial info and solve real world problems 0 helps calculate whether relationships between objects are significant or coincidental c all of business is run by this changing how we live What is geospatial data 1 Geo Spatial info Location Where is it coordinateslat amp long 2 Spatial Non Spatial characteristics what is it Data Models how we simplify real world spatial information into a GIS 1 Raster data model Pixilation pictures satellite image that s real amp fast use when boundaries are not as precise ex vegetation cover soil coverage etc 2 Vector data model Points lines polygons use when you have absolute boundaries Raster is faster but vector looks more correctel Data Acquisition Where does data come from Scanning and referencing paper maps Satellite imagery amp aerial photos GPS data Field survey Government agenciesonline sources You location services on your phone when you tweet etc GIS applications public safety coastal management commercialbusiness health care EXAM INFO Exam 15 50 questions 2 pts each 34 mut choice 10 true false 6 short answerfill in the blank definition Lectures lntro basic concepts thinking geographically placeregions maps amp geospatial technologies Know the mental map that s on the PowerPoint Everything we ve talked about Some include Types of maps Geospatial technologies Loca ons What is geog Diffusion Types of regions Space Place Site absolute location Example Questions The earths travel 15 degrees every hour true Lines of latitude converge at poles false Map of usc campus would be small scale compared to SC state map false A sphere is where the purest concentration of a phenomenon is found false Bible belt is an example of a formal region true
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'