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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaydra Notetaker on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 237 at University of New Mexico taught by Shaner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
Week 4 Layers Hypodermis not technically a part of the skin fat storage cushioning thickens as we age Epidermis has multiple layers 1 Stratum Basale Germinatrium deepest layer one row of actively mitotic stem cells some newly formed cells become part of more super cial layers contain melanocytes and dendritic cells 2 Stratum Spinosum several layers of keratinocytes uni ed by desmosomes cells contain thick bundles of laments made of prekeratin here is where you nd the most dendritic cells and some melanocytes 3 Stratum Granulosum four to siX layers of cells keratinization takes place in this layer this means that the cells ll with keratin and become at organelles are deteriorating cytoplasm falls lamellar granules release lipids keratohyaline forms keratin in the upper layers of cells 4 Stratum Lucidum called the clear layer only located in thick skin protects skin from abrasions 5 Stratum Comeum twenty to thirty layers of deaddying cells cells are at membranous sacs of keratin glycolipids ll the extra space between the cells is the most super cial layer has multiple cell types 1 Keratinocytes produce keratin found all over form primary barrier and water proo ng of the skin held together tightly by desmosomes anchoring junctions 2 Melanocytes produce melanin Week 4 is a protein from oxidation of amino acids protects nucleus from UV Rays secretes melanin 3 Dendritic Cells ingest foreign materials elicits an immune response 4 Tactile Cells sits at the end of a sensory nerve senses pressure and gives the signal to the nerve Dermis is mostly connective tissue has two layers 1 Papillary Layer is super cial made up of areolar connective tissue is loose allows for easy movement through the dermis ie phagocytes moving about to ght infection contains dermal pili increases surface area more opportunity for absorption 2 Reticular Layer makes up about eighty percent of the dermis made up of dense connective tissues contains pockets of adipose tissues collagen fibers helps bind water elastic fibers allows for recoil cleavage lines directional collagen fibers throughout the body exure lines folds in the dermis allows for movement picture the creases on your fmgers friction ridges found only in thick skin contains numerous sweat and oil gland openings increases the surface area helps with increasing the sense of touch and grip What gives skin color Week 4 1 Melanin prevents UV Rays from penetrating the nuclei of our cells What can UV Rays do Damage DNA cause thymine dimers creates lumps in skin cause elastic bers to clump together makes skin feel leathery skin is unable to stretch as much can cause depression in immune system destroys folic acid which is involved in DNA synthesis UVA penetrates clouds and glass causes melanin production associated with aging penetrates the epidermis dermis and subcutaneous layers of the skin UVB stronger rays than UVA intensif1es with seasons location and time of day associated with burns and cancer formation 2 Carotene comes from carrots and other orange foods helps synthesize the structural component of Vitamin A good for vision skin bone and immune system health 3 Hemoglobin binds to oxygen in the blood for transport across the body has four binding sites that oxygen can attach to has a cumulative af nity for oxygen tums pink when oxygen binds Cyanosis hemoglobin molecule turns blue due to lack of oxygen Cyan is a shade of the color blue Skin Cancer Types 1 Nonmelanoma Basal Cell Carcinoma most common form of skin cancer make up about 80 of cancer cases treatment involves scraping off cancerous tissues and continuing regular check ups for no one type of targeted cell 2 Squamous Cell Carcinoma makes up about 16 of cancer cases Week 4 is more aggressive than nonmelanoma but not fast growing does not have one speci cally targeted cell 3 Melanoma makes up about 4 of cancer cases is responsible for about 80 of cancerrelated deaths is VERY serious and aggressive targets melanocytes cells begin to over produce melanin or not produce it at all UVB association creates dark spots on skin can spread throughout the body into other types of tissues
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