9/8-9/10 cell physiology BIOL 3301
9/8-9/10 cell physiology BIOL 3301 BIOL 3301 - 002
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BIOL 3301 - 002
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Lutz on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3301 - 002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Laura D Mydlarz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see CELL PHYSIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
98 15 Passive transport 0 Gasses 0 Hydrophobic molecules 0 Small uncharged polar molecules Large molecules cannot move through the membrane freely Passive transport molecules move through the spaces between the phospholipids based on the concentration gradient of that specific molecule everything diffuses from high concentration to low concentration when both sides are approximately equal diffusion stops changing the concentrations on each side 0 Smaller molecules move faster 0 Larger molecules diffuse slower 0 The higher the gradient the faster the diffusion 0 The lower the gradient the slower the diffusion low is slow 0 Passive transport cannot be prevented by cell functions 0 Passive transport makes toxins extremely dangerous When you change the concentration on one side the substance will diffuse across the membrane to reform the equilibrium High altitude creates one of these effects There is less oxygen at a higher elevation When you move to a higher elevation your body compensates by changing the percentages of different things in your blood most notably hemoglobin by increasing your red blood cell count This allows you to more effectively take oxygen from the atmosphere Many athletes especially runners train in high elevations before running in a competition to raise their body39s ability to absorb oxygen efficiently This is the legal version of blood doping Concentration gradients hold energy like ATP however the gradient is the energy source whereas the bonds in ATP are the source of that energy The concentration gradient across the cell is called a membrane potential We need these membrane potentials to keep the cell functioning Our cells control these potentials using protein pumps in the cell membrane Dioxins poisonous chemicals that have been used as a form of biological warfare DDT if it kills insects why wouldn39t it kill other things as well Many small hydrophobic molecules are cancer causing agents carcinogens The problems with oil spills Oil repels water and birds naturally have some on their feathers Oil sticks together when more oil is added to the birds feathers it causes them to clump and lose the ability to repel water from the bird39s skin Oil is toxic no duh so it effects the digestion and absorbance of nutrients in animals that swallow it Two important gradients to know K is concentrated in the cell Na is concentrated outside of the cell There are many other gradients in the cell Phospholipid Bilayer impermeability The cell membrane is impermeable to most of the molecules in the cell that are important to cell function This includes Charged particles Sugars Amino acids Water Enter membrane proteins Membrane proteins are the tunnels into and out of the cell that molecules can pass through There are three large groups of these proteins Pumps active transport Carriers passive transport usually Channels passive transport Channels always allow for constant uninterrupted ow of small charged particles into and out of the cell They are hydrophobic on the outside and hydrophilic on the inside this allows the hydrophilic molecules to pass through while still holding the protein in the cell membrane Channels do not change conformation Carriers are more selective and not always open for anything to pass through they also function with the gradients most of the time Limited access to a few similar molecules Carrier proteins change conformations Carrier proteins are also known as transporters Pumps are the most selective only allow one molecule or one set of molecules through at a time They go against the gradient and require ATP to work Protein pumps change conformation Pumps create the gradients for the chemicals In order of speed channels are fastest with carriers and pumps following in that order Channel proteins and carrier proteins allow for 39facilitated diffusion39 basically diffusion with help Nerve networks can function because of the constant use of pumps and carriers Hypertonic solutes are more concentrated in this solution than the environment near it Hypotonic lower concentration of solutes Hypertonic and hypotonic are relative to the environment they are in not absolute values One type of protein pump probably the most important is the sodium potassium pump Uses 1 ATP Pumps 3 sodium cations out of the cell Pumps 2 Potassium cations into the cell Both ions are pushed against their gradients There is a region inside of the protein inside the cell that binds to and breaks ATP to change the configuration of the protein and send the cations out against the gradients ATP donates a Phosphate to the protein and is kicked off as ADP ATP never leaves the cell Sodium and potassium go in opposite directions Steps for Sodium potassium pump 3 Na bind to protein ATP binds to protein ATP breaks into ADP and Pi Protein changes configuration 2 K bind to the protein Sodium is kicked out Protein ips configuration again Pi is kicked off the protein Potassium leaves WWNQMPPP Protein pumps create the gradients that carrier and channel proteins destroy use There are tons of different protein pumps and different types of protein pumps V class pumps use ATP break bondsuse energy F class make ATP form bondscreate usable energy Cotransport from a carrier protein is the exception to the passive transport rule In cotransport one molecule or one type of molecule goes With its gradient and forces a different molecule to travel against its gradient using the energy of the gradient of the first molecule to coast through Without the use of ATP Cotransport Carrier proteins require both molecules to bind in order to change conformation Symporters are cotransporters that take both types of molecules in the same direction 2 Na glucose symporter Power of gradient and 2 Na allows the glucose molecule to overcome the gradient and enter the cell Na binds first Glucose binds second After all three are ejected inside the cell protein returns to original conformation Occluded conformation is the conformation Where the transported materials are trapped inside the protein Antiporter is a cotransporter that takes one molecule into the cell and one out of the cell One is With the gradient and one is against the gradient The first molecule moves With the gradient the second moves against The protein requires the second in order to return to the original conformation 91015 Calcium also pumps against the gradient Calcium is in very low concentrations in the cell and relatively low concentrations outside of the cell there is less calcium in the body than sodium or potassium Calcium is released into the cell really quickly over short amounts of time Calcium pumps have to get the calcium out of the cytosol to end muscle contractions rigor mortis stiffness in dead bodies is caused by the calcium no longer being taken out of the cytosol in muscle cells Process 0 calcium X2 and ATP bind together 0 ATP breaks to ADP and P 0 conformation ips 0 calcium released 0 P leaves 0 Conformation ips back Look at picture from notes for more detailed structure Alpha helices move the calcium up the protein When ATP breaks P binds to aspartate Fclass proton pumps are different from Vclass pumps are different from Pclass pumps Fclass pumps have a spinning gear Ion channels are holes in the cell membrane They only move ions extremely fast and require no energy Problems in the membrane concentration ux is constant going toward equilibrium and it is impermeable to most molecules Carrier protein that brings glucose into our cell We living things eat stuff break it into pieces and kick out whatever we don39t want Glucose made by plants and we eat the plants Glucose determines our energy level Our brain needs glucose the best excuse for a sugarholic Fat has the highest concentration of energy Red blood cells and brain cannot use any other type of sugar as an energy source Adrenaline rush comes from glucose so if your blood sugar is low your fight or ight response won39t be as strong With glucose our bodies are generally socialistic in nature it39s all evenly distributed to all the cells GLUT is the general term for a glucose transporter that pulls glucose into the cell remember the sodium glucose transporter There are 15 different GLUTs We are focused on 15 Insulin stimulates GLUT 4 helps with our insulation only in fats and muscles the tissues in our bodies that help keep us warm Glut 3 is the only one for the brain NOT insulin sensitive Here the socialism model breaks down the different GLUTs function at different speeds GLUT 1 is faster than GLUT 2 this means red blood cells with GLUT 1 need sugar more than most Pore in all GLUTs is formed by 12 helices that form the tunnel GLUT 1 Most common one In the red blood cells allows it to pick up more glucose so it can be evenly distributed throughout the body This is a level of control for where the glucose ends up GLUT 3 Highest affinity Three greedy brain needs the sugar so it uses the best GLUT available to take it up Waiting for insulin to help it work would slow it down so this one is independent of insulin GLUT 2 is slowest TWO leWesT GLUT 4 requires insulin insulin takes time to be released and bind to the insulin receptors in the cell to send GLUT 4 up to the membrane Once it binds the GLUT 4 can go to the surface of the plasma membrane and start moving the glucose into the cells So GLUT 4 has the handicap of insulin because as soon as it starts it catches up to all the others in the race of bringing glucose into the cell Carbs If you cut out your carbs and sugars completely your body will destroy your proteins in an effort to make up for the deficiency in sugarenergyATP in the body Carbs sugar starch in terms of our bodies uptake of glucose Complexity of formation carb sugar etc slows the breakdown down think putting a 100 piece puzzle away vs a 5000 piece puzzle The longer you take to make it the longer it will take to break it Simple carbs give the sugar rush and crash Complex carbs keep you going If you spike the sugar insulin is activated GLUT 4 will start working and your body will pull more sugar into your cells leaving a lower than normal level of glucose in the blood stream Insulin doesn39t turn off very quickly which leaves GLUT 4 working overtime past when all the other GLUTs end the work day This makes you weak tired etc Your brain isn39t able to get the amount of sugar it should because you blood sugar is now too low Type 1 diabetes is only 1 in 10 This is what you39re born with Genetic no insulin is sent into your bloodstream Relatively simple treatment just take a few insulin shots not fun but simple and it will allow everything to work properly Type 2 diabetes developed disease usually cause by bad diet this is the picture of sugar OD Leaves sugar in the blood to wreak havoc on the organs of the body not built to handle this in the blood ow All origins of sugar end in the same placesproducts glycogen the short term use it in a few hours product and Triglycerides that fill up your fat cells and stick around for the long ride
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