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Animalism and Dualism

by: Bethaney Hall

Animalism and Dualism PHI4500

Bethaney Hall
GPA 3.6
Randolph Clarke

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Randolph Clarke
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethaney Hall on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHI4500 at Florida State University taught by Randolph Clarke in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Metaphysics in PHIL-Philosophy at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 09/10/15
The Dualist Theory VZ 368382 Empiricist Theories 0 Two main philosophical questions about personal identity 0 What does it mean to say that P2 is the same person as P1 0 What evidence of observation and experience can we have that a person P2 at t2 time is the same person as a person P1 at t1 0 only give one account on personal identity because their idea of personal identity was only in terms of the evidence of observation and experience 0 Empiricism experience is the primary thing that gives us knowledge Aristotle believed in personal identity as being constituted by bodily identity 0 For him however it was not only shape and physiological properties but also a capacity for a mental life of thought and feeling 0 The modi ed body theory that focused more on the brain 1 P2 is identical with P1 if P2 has the same central organ controlling memory and character 0 This view was formed by and states that quotpersonal identity and the extent of similarity in matter and apparent memory are not the samequot o The thoughtexperiment of whether an individual can duplicate or branch is brought up again and is addressed by this theory 0 Par t believed that personal identity is a matter of degree that when concerning the thought experiment both people would to a degree be that original person This is controversial because up until this point we have only thought of personal identity as all or nothing numerical Par t argues that after this experiment that person survives in part as each of the two resulting persons 0 With this theory there is no reason to argue against branching since it simply does not matter Seen as an objection to the complex view 0 The sameness of persons is the sameness of souls 0 An Argument for Souls 1 For any person now conscious it is possible that he or she continue to exist without his or her body 2 If a person now conscious can continue to exist without his or her body then that person now has an immaterial part a soul 3 Therefore each person now conscious has an immaterial soul 0 Classical dualism is a way of expressing this simple view of personal identity 0 states that two substances are the same if and only if they have the same form and there is continuity of the stuff of which they are made and allow that there may be kinds of stuff other than matter Argues there is separation in the mind and body Animalism VZ 347361 The view of animalism is an unpopular one in which many philosophers argue against that humans are animals What Animalism Says 0 each human is numerically identical with an animal 0 Some believe that we are animals but still reject animalism the narrator describes these people as quotconstitutionalistsquot 0 They instead argue that we are the same in the sense that we re made up of the same matter but we are not 39identical39 because we can quotcome apartquot from them The narrator assures he will further explain what quotcome apartquot means later on could possibly mean that we have too many complex differences than most animals so we cannot be idenUcal Notes that animalism is not the same as the view that humans are made up of material things 0 Animalism does imply materialism since animals are made up of material things but materialism does not imply animalism cannot be seen vice versa 0 We are reassured that being an animal doesn39t imply that animals are people or that all human animals are people either 0 We may not want to call embryos 39people39 or individuals in a vegetative state 0 This view also doesn39t imply that part of being a person is being an animal 0 But it is argued that all humans are animals o The theory of animalism is sometimes instead stated as the view that we areI o quotessentiallyquot meaning we couldn39t possibly exist without being an animal it is essential to our being 0 quotmost fundamentallyquot could imply that our identity conditions derive from our being animals our identity is our being animals Animalism seems to link identity with one39s body however this is untrue 0 We are given an example of an animal who has undergone surgery to remove limbs and replaces them with prosthetic ones we still consider the creature an animal Alternatives If we are not animals then what are we 0 We are given a list of other theories philosophers argue on what we could be Simple immaterial substances Material objects constituted by human animals Tempora parts of animals Purey composed of thoughts and not a concrete being Hume We don39t exist at all everything is an illusion Whv Animalism is Unporular Many argue that since we can think we simply cannot be animals 0 There is a singleminded focus on personal identity that only asks the question of quotwhat does it take to persist in timequot rather than the question of quotwhat are wequot The most popular solutions to personal identity rely which animalism rules out because the persistence of being a human animal does not consist in mental continuity 0 Example an embryo is a human animal according to animalism The ThinkingAnimal Aroument On page 354 a logic form to help us understand the argument of animalism is shown xx is a human animal amp x is sitting in your chair Hxx is a human animal amp x is sitting in your chair implying x is thinking xx is thinking amp x is sitting in your chair implies x you Mxx is a human animal amp x you lts conclusion is that we are human animals it is not simply stating that our personal identity is being an animal ln the following sections we are going to try and debunk this argument by each sectionargument Alternative One There are no human animals 0 50 if someone were to argue against premise one they would simply be arguing that there are no human animals 0 The narrator argues that if there are any human animals at all then there would be one sitting in that chair you so if there aren39t any human animals it39s hard to believe that there are any organisms of other sorts o If you deny this premise you are denying there are organism existing We are told this theory is called idealism the belief there exists no material objects Alternative Two Human animals can39t think We have moved past the rst premise to the second that states the human animal in your chair can think 0 If one was to deny this premise they would be arguing that there is an animal sitting in the chair from premise one but it is not thinking o If no human animal can think which is what would be argued from denying this premise then that would mean no animal can think since human animals and animals are identical If not even a human animal can think which has a healthy brain and nervous system it39s hard to have the view that any other organism can think Some may argue that the human animal is just your body and that your body cannot think which can be called the quotbodyquot argument 0 This belief is basically stating that the phrase 39your body denotes something that is unable to read The narrator tells us we should be wary with not being able to substitute 39Alice s body with just 39Alice 0 This argument however does nothing to explain why a human animal should be unable to think Alternative Three You are not alone The third premise expresses that x is thinking and x is sitting in the chair therefore x is you 0 If one denies this premise they are denying that it is you who is sitting in the chair Woudn t this mean there is something else in the chair with you 0 There being two beings in one however deprives personhood of any psychological or moral signi cance Hard Choices If we are to accept animaism there are many hard choices we would have to make on what we already believe is true like the idea that we are what our thoughts are What it would mean if we were animals If we are animals then psychological continuity isn39t personal identity o Earlier we were given an example of taking one s cerebrum out and placing it into another body this organ houses our thoughts and characteristics If this was done then our thoughts would be transferred to a different vessel Animalism argues that even though these were transferred that is still not you If you donate a liver your identity does not go with that so why give this organ transplant more signi cance Class notes


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