Week of Notes for Sept. 8-10
Week of Notes for Sept. 8-10 PSY 0310
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Morris on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 0310 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Ganger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
PSY 0310 Prenatal 1Development 09102015 Length of human gestation 38 weeks form conception to birth three stages of development Zygote weeks 12 Embryo weeks 38 Fetus weeks 938 40 weeks of pregnancy according to obstetrics starts form lst day of last menstrual period conception is at ovulation ZygoteGerminal Stage 02 weeks Conceonn Gametes egg amp sperm join together to create l zygote fertilized egg Twins Massive cell division But not differentiation ImplantationZygote attracts itself to uterine wa At 79 days Placenta Embryo Stage 38 weeks Stage of most rapid development and most vulnerability Cell differentiation Cells become different types skin etc Cell death apoptosis EX Hand plate web between ngers die Guide cells to where they need to go 4 weeks heart beating 14 inch long 56 weeks Facial features Rapid brain development Movement begins Fetal Stage 9 weeks All internal organs present Not all fully developed Tactile stimulation 1112 weeks External genitalia developed Breathing grasping swallowing sucking Practicing to get muscles ready 1620 weeks movement felt by mother depends on size of mother less fat feel sooner 2226 weeks viability with medical intervention 28 weeks Sleep cycles External sounds Fetal Experience amp Learning Sensory experience Sight not much before birth Touch Taste amp Smell Preferences persist postnatally Scent of mother s amniotic uid Carrot juice experiment 5 12 months Mothers drank carrot juice during pregnancy and saw that babies responded well to carrot juice after birth Hearing by 28 weeks Internal and external Testing hearing prenatally Measuring Fetal Learning Habituation A 39Canyoutellthedifference test Habituation decrease in response due to repeated presentation of stimulus DishabituationRecovery response to new stimulus Rebound in response due to subsequent change in stimulus How to measure Heart rate for neonates or fetuses Pulse decelerates upon stimulus presentation for interesting stimulus not startling Habituation in this contextreturn to baseline Decelerates again to indicate dishabituation Fetal HeartRate habituation example Lecanuet et a 1995 9th months of gestation 32 weeks babi l biba fetuses reacted to change in sounds Sounds remembered postnatally Mother s voice Mother s language Measuring Fetal Learning After Birth Nonnutritive sucking for neonates Eg mother s language versus another Works opposite of heart rate Sucking rate increase after change of stimulus Knowledge retained after birth DeCasper amp Spence 1986 Cat in the Hat Study Mother reads The Cat in the Hat during pregnancy Infants tested soon after birth Faster sucking allows to hear The Cat in the Hat slower sucking another rhyming story or vice versa l conditioned them For infants who has heard The Cat in the Hat prenatally they sucked in the right pattern to hear it Controls showed no differences Themes Nature and nurture Early development is largely canalized but it can be affected by expenence The active child Fetus own activity contributes to its development quotsuckingquot and breathing ContinuityDiscontinuity Change is gradual but development is divided into stages Teratogens agents that cause harm during prenatal development Insight into disordersproblems Window into prenatal development Factors that in uence severity of effect Dose cigarettes alcohol etc Genetic predisposition of baby and mother Combinations Agetiming of the fetus Sensitive periods in prenatal development Teratogens affect everyone differently EX Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome most severe From persistent heavy drinking throughout pregnancy Features Facial abnormalities Slow growth Small head seizures Intellectual impairment Hyperactivity ARND Alcoholrelated Neurodevelopmental Disorder aka Fetal Alcohol Effects FAE l least severe No physical symptoms De cits in attention hyperactivity Effects are variable and unpredictable Additional teratogens to know Cigarette smoking Prescription drugs thalidomide amp DES Environmental hazards especially mercury Minimate disease amp other pollutants PCBs Maternal factors especially disease A typically developing neonate s day Sleeping 16h Active REM8h Quiet NREM8h Crying 2h Why Colic more than 2h a day amp not easy to soothe Drowsiness 1h Awake 5h Active 25h Alert 25h Premature birth not fully developed Low birth weight 2500 g 55 lbs or less average BW 75 lbs Preterm Birth before beginning of 36th week 3640 weeks is considered quotfull termquot Causes Teratogens Multiple births Viruses Small for Gestational Age full term but LBW greatest risk 34 weeks as a breakpoint 35 weeks is better than 34 fewer illnesses fewer medical procedures shorter hospital stay 34 weeks more likely to have less physical growth mild to moderate cognitive delays in early and middle childhood
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