Week Two Sept 8-10 What is Life, DNA
Week Two Sept 8-10 What is Life, DNA BIO 101N
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Davis on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 101N at Central Michigan University taught by Pangle, Wiline in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 204 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
BIO 101N Dr Pangle 98 Notes What is Life What is DNA 1 Characteristics of Life 0 O 2 Cells 0 O Organs Organized made up of cells Responds to the environment GrowthDevelopment In gt energy use gt out Movement not required but usually happens Reproduction exception viruses which cannot reproduce by themselves Achieved because of DNA Ability to Evolve Regulation Average cell size ranges from 1 pm to 100 um Cells of a whale are the same size as the cells of a mouse 2Celltypes a ProkaryoteCells 0 Simple 0 Small 0 Do not have nucleus 0 DNA free floats inside the cell 0 Make proteins with Ribosomes 0 Has a cell wall and several membranes to protect the organelles within the cell b Eukaryotic Cell 0 Complex cells 0 Make proteins using Ribosomes 0 Biggest Difference DNA is enclosed within a nucleus 3 DNA Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid Main Function allows body make proteins that are essential to life Deoxyribose sugar Nucleic Acid Molecule Some life forms do not use Deoxyribose but a different kind of sugar Ribose this is called RNA It is believed that the first form of life had RNA Nucleic acid is made up of parts called monomers The Nucleotides in DNA are made up of these monomers 4 different DNA Nucleotides a Adenine A b Thymine T O O 5 Vocab O c Guanine G d Cytosine C Complementary Base Pairing DNA s main property each nucleotide is only attracted to and only pairs with one other type of nucleotide a Adenine a only pairs with Thymine T b Guanine G only pairs with Cytosine C c A nucleotide with 2 rings can only pair with a nucleotide with only 1 ring Structure of DNA is a Double Helix a Two strands b Sugar Phosphate Backbone and nucleotide pairs c Nucleotide pairs are attracted to one another but do not touch d DNA can do its job of sending info on how to make proteins because of its structure e Has the ability to quotUnzipquot make copies of itself and quotRezipquot Found in most living things Roughly 3 billion in the human Genome Ribose sugar Nucleic Acid molecule Single strand Uses Ribose sugar instead of Deoxyribose sugar Uses the Nucleotide Uracil U instead of Thymine T Shorter Lifespan Tiny small Main Function messenger carries info from DNA to other organelles Chromosome A whole bunch of DNA put together we have 46 chromosomes Gene a section of a chromosome that can be read to make a protein Only makes up about 2 of a chromosome 910 Notes DNA Functions 1 Nucleotide building block of DNA Chromatid Base Backbone Sister Chromatids Genome complete set of DNA 2 Two functions Make more DNA replication 0 Make Proteins A DNA Replication gt RNA I gt Proteins U Transcription Translation Central Dogma functions of DNA o Replication every time you lose a cell one must replace it need to make more cells DNA copies itself and then 1 cell becomes 2 Before nucleus divides DNA replicates itself DNA Unzips mam ma A m a mam m m 4 T emf up E5 5f incl 5 1 T SEEP Mme Nucle f ides s H httpbiologystackexchangecomquestions31710howaccuratedoesthealignmentofmoleculesin dnahavetobe Nucleotides enter the polymerase and pair up then bonds them together Monomer Nucleotide gt Polymer Nucleic Acid Replication takes place on both strands of DNA at the same time Finished product two identical copies of DNA sister chromatids SemiConservative made up of half the old DNA strand and half the new strand Parent DNA strand old strand Daughter DNA strand new strand 0 DNA makes proteins Only the genes make proteins Gene transcription gt mRNA translation gt Polypeptide m messenger translation taking RNA and quottranslatingquot it into what the protein looks like Ribosome place where proteins are made protein factory Gene region of DNA that codes for proteins DNA unzips mRNA copies gene and then takes code to ribosome