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Week 2 Notes

by: Clarissa Marie Fuller

Week 2 Notes ANTH240

Clarissa Marie Fuller
Introduction to Archeology
Stefan Woehlke

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About this Document

These notes cover the details on the different ancestors we went over in class and notes from the Geertz reading.
Introduction to Archeology
Stefan Woehlke
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Marie Fuller on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH240 at University of Maryland taught by Stefan Woehlke in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Maryland.


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Date Created: 09/10/15
Human Evolution 91015 846 PM Our ancestors Refer to elms slides for more details 0 Sahelanthropus tchadensis o The foramen magnum the hole where your spine goes into your neck Orrorin tugenensis o More human like thigh but ape hands suggests that they might need to walk more on the ground but still need their climbing abilities Ardipithecus ramidus 0 Different feet suggest adaptations for walking and tree climbing 0 Less sexual dimorphism suggests you re getting closer to humans because humans have little sexual dimorphism Australopithecus anamensis o Sagittal crest where your jaw muscle attaches to the bone It looks like a bone Mohawk Australopithecus afarensis 0 Found very widely across Africa 0 Australopithecus garhi 0 Big evolutionary jump because of longer legs Allows you to move more efficiently You can release more body heat 0 May be the first to have tools Australopithecus africanus 0 Around 23 million years ago double check if he updates the stes 0 Genus Paranthropus o Are really robust australopithecines 0 Really really big o Homo habilis 0 Make stone tools that continue generation through generation olduwan tools 0 They start to develop a chin and a more human like face Homo rudolfensis Homo erectus 0 Found in Georgia the great rift valley china east Asia and southeast Asian islands 0 Turconoboy the 8 year old who was very tall Read his tooth enamel to determine age 0 Brain is over twice the size of a chip but still smaller than ours Body hair is gone they begin to sweat Compared lice from gorilla and humans Invented the Ashulian hand axe Developed fire May have cared for the old and weak 0 Were the first to leave Africa and spread across the planet 0 Homo floriensis o Hobbits o Experienced island dwarfism due to lack of resources Exhibited in other species such as elephants and kimono dragons 0 Were not considered homo erectus due to their larger chest cavity and more ape like features Homo heidelbergensis o The oldest to use fire 0 Homo neanderthalensis o More on video next week Telling the difference between a human and an ape The molecular clock 0 DNA mutates at a constant rate 0 Teeth 0 Shape of teeth 0 Usewear analysis looking at teeth under a microscope to compare enamel surfaces 0 OOO Evolution of the Mind Geertz Reading Notes 0 the first half of the 20th centaury o the mind could not be studied because there s no way to study it o the mind is not a thing so it cant be studied like a thing so it must be studied like a process o 2 major opionions on the evolution of the mind in 1962 o Freud believed in primary thought and secondary thought Primary thought is being aware of what things are Secondary is when you process what you think 0 Culture did not come about until the fully modern mind had evolved The critical point hypothesis ex ice Our bodies stopped evolving and our minds began to do all the evolving All of our minds are essentially the same The psychic unity of mankind 0 Culture and mind evolved together 0 They respond to the other 0 Can assume this from endocasts made of the inside of skulls Geertz definition of culture See slide 4 on elms power point 0 The mind has to adapt to the new things the body can do 0 Ex when stone tools form your mind has to have memory and teaching skills but also the body gets bigger thumb pads and more flexible hands and straight fingers The mind is an active organismquot o The Jellyfish example 0 The mind can interpret things differently Things can look the same but are interpreted differently 0 People believe that the mind sends a signal to a part of your body and that body part just knows what to do Not everything is controlled by the mind some parts of the body just respond to what s happening 0 Patterned Behavior Peoples habits Symbolic thought 0 Things around us become symbols 0 Through experience we can create circumstances with symbols in our minds 0 Actions become repetitions of past experiences 0 Growth in the brocus region of the brain which is associated with language suggests growth in symbolic language 0 Studying the mind how its done 0 You have to observe what the mind does as an effect 0 Objects are used to understand the development of the mind Assume behaviors from these objects which implies thought 0 FossHs Grand changes in the shape of our bones can show different behaviors Usewear analysis


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